Address: 385000, Maikop, Adyghea Republic, Pervomayskaya Street, House 208. Ph.: 8(8772) 52 48 55
#1 / 2018
On the creative fate of the first Circassian novelist Khalid Abukov
This work discusses creative fate of Kh. Abukov, one of the first Circassian writers in whose biography still there are «white spots». The author uses archival documents to find responses to some unresolved questions connected with activity of Kh. Abukov. Also the publication elucidates biographic data of some other Circassian and Abazin cultural figures who were prosecuted during repressions of the 1930s. The statements of various literature historians on life and work of the writer which do not have sufficient evidential base are criticized. On the basis of a comparative-historical method the short analysis of the main works of the author is carried out. His contribution to formation of the Circassian literature is noted. The conclusion is drawn that Kh. Abukov’s creativity reflected typological features of the Adyghe «prose of a historic breakthrough» gravitating to an esthetics of extreme contrasts.
Bakov Kh.I., Panesh U.M.
Creative identity of the writer and literary process (from material of Tembot Kerashev’s prose)
The paper focuses on an originality of literary works by Tembot Kerashev against the background of development of art esthetic process of domestic literature in the 20th century. The publication shows specific features of problematic character and style of the first works of the famous writer which experienced influence of «prose of a historic breakthrough», as well as evolution of the creative manner defined by spiritual and esthetic searches of art of a word during the 1960-1980s. Use of comparative-historical and comparative-typological methods of a research allowed the authors to establish such features of creative identity of Tembot Kerashev as epic thinking, wide use of folklore poetics and the solution of large-scale problems through the figurative description of national character. It is inferred that T. Kerashev’s creativity reflects features of realism of the 20th century which are shown in the idea of worthiness of the individual, in various use of poetic means and strengthening of convention.
Panesh U.M., Sokolova G.V.
On typological features of formation of a genre of the story in «prose of a historic breakthrough» (from material of the Adyghe literatures of the 1930s)
The paper discusses the problematic, thematic and genre features of the story in «prose of a historic breakthrough» of the Adyghe literatures of the 1930s. The publication shows the unity of genetically close literatures – Adyghe, Kabardian and Circassian, their typological ties with the Russian prose in the choice of the conflict, the concept of character and in use of new art means. It is established that in the first works of Kh. Teunov, A. Evtykh and J. Naloev an attempt is undertaken to transfer the conflict to inner world of the character that leads to strengthening art problematical character and to the effect of deepening psychologism. The historical - literary and comparative - typological methods used by the authors allowed them to draw a conclusion that the genre of the story developed such lines which provided the further movement of new written literatures to the following, qualitatively new stage of development.
Panesh U.M., Sosnovsky V.T.
On features and typological ties of proletarian poetry of the «era of a revolutionary change»
This paper discusses formation of proletarian poetry of the 1920s. An analysis is made of the problems, conflict, genre, structural and style features of works of domestic and German writers: V. Kirillov, V. Aleksandrovsky, M. Gerasimov, A. Khatkov, E. Weinert, J. Becher, etc. Typological connection of works of poets of different national literatures is established: influence of the revolutionary ideas, esthetics of extreme contrast, as well as scale and «planetariness» of poetic thinking. Use of historical-literary and comparative-typological methods allowed the authors of this paper to formulate conclusions that the proletarian poetry was the international phenomenon and that it not only expressed certain aspects of art which developed during «the era of a revolutionary change», but also promoted strengthening the art problematical character and deepening of the concept of the personality. The research makes a contribution to the solution of problems of formation of literary connection, development of genres and styles and can be used in teaching history of literature and in writing higher school textbooks and education manuals.
The concept of national character in the novel «Saber for the Emir» by Alim Keshokov
This paper focuses on the problem of national character and its conceptual decision in the historical novel by the Kabardian writer A. Keshokov. The purpose of this research is to analyze an image of the main character connected with author’s search of a national ideal and represented in the system of cultural wealth «Adyghe Khabze». The scientific and practical importance and relevance of work are defined by a new research aspect, based on consideration of a problem in the light of dialectic interaction of concepts of the national and universal. Use of historical, literary, textual and culturological methods of research allowed the author to come to a conclusion that A. Keshokov, on the one hand, avoids pseudo-monumentalism of character of the hero and folklore and epic idealization of his personality and develops the realistic concept of national character and, on the other, portrays the person through the movements of soul and represents his spiritual searches in the complicated space of consciousness. The new quality of historicism of A. Keshokov in portraying the image of the hero allows us to open the dialectics of the national and universal in him and to show his drama way to the truth and search of the place in a whirlpool of historical changes.
Stepanova T.M., Autleva F.A.
Elements of national humorous culture as one of components of romantic world duality in W. Irving’s prose
The paper explores the use of elements of national humorous culture as one of components of romantic world duality in W. Irving’s prose in order to identify various forms of humor and satire in the work «The Legend of Sleepy Hollow», and to analyze their functional contents. The prevalence in structure of the text of the fantastic scheme, oral tradition and colloquial lexicon are investigated. The skill of the author in creation of a realistic psychological portrait of the main character of the work – Ichabod Crane is analyzed, the stylistic features of the author’s speech creating expressive expressional coloring of this characteristic are considered. The publication focuses on the dialectic approach of the author tending to disclose an image of the main character as carrier (at all his external simplicity) of a deep conduct of life and behavior deserving attention, as well as his ambiguity. It is inferred that reconstruction of romantic world duality, oppositions in character of the main hero of foundations of traditional national morals and culture and the mystical superstitious pseudo-romantic attitude is relevant.
Khuako F.N., Kirzhinova S.A.
Cultural behavior in the Adyge communication of the new century
The work examines the onset of today’s civilization, which determined the creative search for a number of Circassian writers. The relevance of the work is conditioned by the interest of the modern linguistic, literary and cultural community in science to the problems of the East Asian ethnic communities. The aim of the work is to highlight the ethnic history of the Circassians in its artistic aspect, which predetermines the solution of the task of a more detailed examination of the mythopoetic sphere. This orientation of the humanities scholars is emphasized in the paper by bringing the text examples of S. Gutova, Sh. Kuev, Z. Bzasezhev and M. Tlekhas. This is confirmed by the formulation of analytical conclusions about the ongoing active addressing of Circassian writers to this subject, which determines the prospect of its subsequent development. The authors call the idealization, cultivation, ascension of specific idols one of the indispensable signs of the avant-garde and speak of it as applied to the writers under consideration. The sign of the composition required for the work of art is quite rich in the texts of the current generation of writers to be analyzed. At the same time, the periodically allocated attribution of the text to small prose does not at all affect the quality of the style. Being able to get the recipient in a brightly active layer of nature, Adyghe modern authors can convincingly present its elements as active narrative characters. Here are the individual searches for the meaning of life.
Interpretations of the ancient greek mythology
Myth is the subject of research of various disciplines, such as philosophy, ethnology, folklore, religion, but myth has no yet a common or clear definition. It remains multifaceted, being part of the collective memory and portraying a complex and contradictory world. This article examines the interpretation of ancient mythology with reference to the views of scientists engaged in the study of myth (Sukhachev, Dyakonov, Vico, Schelling, Fraser, Levy-Bruhl, Jung, Levi-Strauss, Zelinsky, Ivanov and others). The historical and chronological interpretation is chosen in order to show that ancient mythology was considered in many ways. The analysis of the role of myth in the life of society was carried out even by the ancient Greeks themselves. Early forms of comprehension of myth became its allegorical interpretation. Since the Renaissance, attempts have been made to scientifically understand myth-making as the desire of an ancient person to understand the world around him. In the era of romanticism, myth was considered an aesthetic phenomenon. In the second half of the 19th century, two main directions of the interpretation of the myth were formed: in the spirit of romantic traditions and within the anthropological school. The study of myth began in the course of analyzing the intellectual features of mythological thinking. In the domestic science mythology was also considered from different points of view, from the reduction of the myth to the explanatory function and ending with the relation of mythology, religion and philosophy. In general, it can be noted that for a long time a unified theory of myth has not been developed in science. Myth is interpreted as the restoration of reality and the rethinking of ideas or as a field of dynamic signaling.
Emblematic characteristics of a wedding ritual in Kalmyk, Russian and English linguocultures
This work deals with the emblematic features of a wedding ritual in traditional communicative consciousness of the Kalmyk, Russian and English people. Studying the emblematic mode of communication is one of the promising directions of philological hermeneutics. The emblem is considered as the identification, communicative attribute aimed at explaining the hidden information which is not easily recognizable for the reader or the listener of other linguoculture. In the considered linguocultures a wedding ritual has bright and rich emblematic expression. The analysis of empirical material has shown that emblematic reconsideration of a wedding ritual in the considered linguocultures is displayed in various verbal, gesture and behavioral reactions, namely in certain etiquette formulas, lexicological and phraseological, dialect and slang units, gesture means, as well as in the form of culturally caused behavioral principles. The technique of this research is based on the comparative description of three linguocultures from the point of view of history, ethnography and sociology. This approach is directed to priority studying the cultural values defining consciousness and behavior of these or those people. The obtained data can be used in courses on cross-cultural communication, cultural linguistics, semiotics and the theory of a discourse.
Travelogue as tool to develop aesthetic sensitivity
In modern society, tendencies to increase intensity of information exchange, the natural reaction to which is a stereotypification of culture, are implemented. It influences a way of the attitude towards representatives of other cultural traditions and the nature of knowledge of the outside world. Such form of expansion of an outlook as travel gets the restrictions connected with stereotypic attitudes of consciousness. At the same time, the economic implication of the organization of tourism becomes that factor which strengthens a tendency of the one-sided attitude towards culture, life and sights of other countries. In this regard the forms of reflection of culture not subject to the general tendency of the stereotypic relation acquire relevance. The travelogue can be considered as one of such ways of an original view of culture. In the text of this work the problem of the relevance of the travelogue for modern culture is posed. The author focuses on an attempt to comprehend the axiological content of love for travel as a love of people. The starting point of the study is the author’s position, according to which the travelogue is not only a journey. It is a narrative, addressed to the addressee and is qualitatively determined by the characteristics of the personality of the traveling narrator (publicist). This publication describes the significance of Georgiy Matveyevich Solovyev’s journalism in the development of the national travel agency.
Luchinsky Yu.V., Ostashevsky A.V.
Media innovations of Henry Luce
The paper deals with the innovations in mass-media tied with the activity of people that may be named the media symbols of the epoch. Henry Luce, the famous American editor, media baron and the author of one of the most influential document in the US political history, is among them. The practical importance of the conducted research lies in the description of the main innovative projects of Luce realized by him in «Time», «Fortune» and «Life» magazines which include introduction of the nomination «the Man of the Year», use of «polls» and «photo reports». The obtained results allow us to build a complete picture of formation of a modern media landscape in historical perspective. Historical, typological and comparative methods of research formed methodological base. Identification of connection of Luce’s activity with work of the so-called «Hutchins Commission» which defined ethical standards of the qualitative periodical press has become a result of this research. The carried-out analysis of the system of moral values offered by the «Hutchins Commission» is of special importance for modern science about journalism since, with approach of an era of digital technologies, most media endure crisis, first of all, due to the lack of ethical regulators.
General characteristic and media-psychological aspect of use of new technologies in Russian modern television
The paper is devoted to the media-psychological aspect of the application of new technologies on domestic television. The author analyzes for the first time the phenomenon of television program impact on the mass audience using an example of Albert Bandura’s social and cognitive theory. The paper also notes that persuasion and suggestion are one of the main methods used today by modern electronic media. With a high degree of probability it is possible to assume that viewing programs of foreign production and in some cases adaptations, in the most serious way affects a state of mind of a large number of people, especially children and school students. The phenomenon of generalized stimuli can cause a violent emotional reaction on the part of the addressee, which will allow the channel to attract new viewers and increase the rating of its programs. As an example, we analyze the program «Clever Fellows and Clever Girls», «The Investigation was conducted with Leonid Kanevsky”, talk show «Windows», «Let them talk» and «Battle of Paranormalists». If you take into account the program on sports topics, such content usually does not have a serious psychological media effect on the audience. But if the leading sports programs actively use various current methods of subconscious influence, such as the method of semantic manipulation, distraction method and the method of crushing information, the impact on the consciousness and attention of the addressee will be strong enough. The results of the study have theoretical and practical significance, as modern television media are quite effective in their work using all kinds of techniques and methods of media technologies. And the knowledge of coping strategies regarding the psychological state of the viewer, highlighted by us in this paper, allows the creators and producers of television programs to effectively build their work.
Specificity of information coverage of the state youth policy in the Russian Federation
The paper deals with the specifics of information coverage in the sphere of implementation of the state youth policy of the Russian Federation. The data of this scientific research, which is based on studying the authoritative sources and the reviewed periodicals, are devoted to issues of information elucidation of activity of public authorities among young people. The author shows features of supply of information materials in media for youth target audiences, as well as the laws of influence of information on value orientations and behavioral models of young people. Results of this research have the theoretical importance which lies in systematization of approaches to the analysis of coverage of the public youth policy of the Russian Federation. The special attention is focused on development of measures of support of the mass media which are engaged in information publicizing realization of the public youth policy in mass media. The data obtained as a result of these researches can be applied both for ordering practical processes of elucidation of the public youth policy for the purpose of identification of the most effective methods of a research, and as a theoretical basis for further information research of publicizing the public youth policy. The research of features of information coverage of the public youth policy in the Russian Federation was not conducted earlier.
Functional semantic field of passivity in hetero-system languages
The paper analyzes the structure of the functional-semantic field of passivity, which is becoming more widespread in linguistics. Attempts are made to analyze the functional-semantic field of passivity in non-cognate languages. To fix the results, diagrams are given and methods for the specific determination of ranks between the stages of fields at both the conceptual and linguistic level are identified. The author focuses on the comparative analysis of the functional-semantic field of passivity in the Azerbaijani language, since in this sphere very few works are devoted to this problem. The method of investigation, based on the principle of constructing functional-semantic fields, makes it possible to systematize and analyze language constructions for the designation of passivity, having a different origin. The revealed peripheries of the functional-semantic field of passivity of the Azerbaijani language are multilevel language structures, the generality of which is formed on the basis of an additional expression of passivity, other than the main meaning.
Features of functioning of antonymic repeating units in the Adyghe language
The paper deals with the antonymic repeating units of complex lexemes of the Adyghe language. It becomes clear that word-formation affixes by means of which single-rooted words and words with different roots are formed are stylistically non-uniform. The analysis of some features of functioning of the antonymic repetitions in the Adyghe literature is of scientific interest. During the research of the antonymic repetitions it is established that they are constructed according to word-formation models which received wide use both in oral, and in written language. The theoretical and practical importance of the studied material is defined by a possibility of its inclusion in higher school lecture courses on word formation, as well as by its use in lexicographic practice when drawing up dictionaries of various types.
Ethnocultural specifics of implementation of a concept «courage» in the English phraseology
The paper analyzes the national specific and gender characteristics of a concept «courage» in the English phraseological picture of the world in order to systematize knowledge of the phraseological system of language as means of reflection of gender stereotypes. An analysis is made of the phraseological units with a gender component characterizing the man in the English language picture of the world. Use of methods of continuous selection, a classification method of the gender-marked phraseological units and the definitional analysis allowed the author to come to conclusions that the gender concept «courage» in the English phraseology has the dual nature of representation. The publication shows that this concept is used in the English phraseology, as in any discursive practice, i.e. it is the dominant category. The practical value lies in a possibility of use of results of this study in courses of a lexicology, phraseology and special courses on gender linguistics.
Bersirov B.M., Anchek S.Kh.
Reflection of phonetic processes in dialect lexicon of the epos «Narts»
The work explores fragments from texts of the Adyghe epos «Narts» in order to identify a lexical layer in different dialect variants, as well as to define and describe the dialectal and supradialectal phonetic processes happening in them. The authors use genre and stylistic, textual and descriptive methods to conduct this research. The conclusion is drawn that as a result of dialect phonetic processes in the considered units, final vowels usually are reduced, cut, and some interconsonant vowels in unaccented situation drop out, voiced consonants are deafly heard, unvoiced consonants are vocalized, and supradialectal phonetic processes force units of one language level to pass into units of other language level. Theoretical and practical value of this work lies in a possibility of inclusion of results of this research in programs of special courses on linguistics and folklore.
Bersirov B.M., Bidanok M.M.
Functioning of affirmative particles in the fiction text
The paper analyzes functioning of category of affirmativeness in language of the fiction text by Kh. Ashinov. The data obtained within the presented scientific research promote expansion of language tools in the choice by the writer of means of a statement. In addition, this research is of theoretical importance because it explores elements of typology of the affirmative particles allocated by G.V. Rogava and Z.I. Kerasheva. The most frequent are the first three of them – -a, -ba and -ri that, in turn, is systematized by separate items, with detailed illustration from Kh. Ashinov’s texts. A particle of the fourth item -sh is obsolete that is confirmed by the authors’ contexts. The publication shows that language means of a statement in the Adyghe text are a very frequent and mobile language mechanism. The obtained data can successfully be used at development of methods of the particle analysis in literary works.
Political discourse in the system of linguistic researches
The paper presents the review of political newspaper communication in the system of linguistic researches. Definition of a political discourse as a specific kind of an ideological discourse and as a subject of a linguoculturological research is given. The political discourse represents the use of language in any field of communication. The discourse is political provided it follows the political act under political circumstances and has basic thematic-political focus. The publication describes functions of the political discourse: information, beliefs and motives. The ideology is inherent in the text. This is due to the presence of the sender and addressee. The political text as the communicative target scheme based by rules and the principles of the political communication is available and included in the communicative area of socio-political activity. The work presents three main methods of the argument allocated by Aristotle: logical arguments, emotional and value arguments.
Golubeva A.Yu., Timashova M.V.
Ways of formation and translation of occasional words
The paper dwells on various ways of formation of occasional words and pays special attention to author’s neologisms. The main problem is identification of a paradigm of derivational values and word-formation types, as well as to provide information on the author’s neologisms (occasional words) and ways of their translation. Fiction texts of classical and modern literature in Russian served as practical material of a research. The theoretical importance of this research lies in the analysis of morphological ways of formation of occasional words and ways of their translation into language recipient. We investigate this type of morphology taking into account functional aspect of the language phenomena, in view of various forms of a recategorization of language units. We arrived at the following conclusions about basic provisions of occasional word formation: such words do not meet the usual language standards and depend on a specific context of the use, therefore process of perception of occasional words, the morphological model, a context and erudition of the linguist play an extraordinary role.
The sender and the addressee in a pedagogical discourse: a concept of interaction
The paper presents qualification characteristics of pedagogical discourse. The author generalizes the basic provisions characterizing the type of discursive formation - pedagogical discourse as an object of linguistic analysis. The methodological basis of the study was the basic provision on language as a system of interrelated elements, the dichotomy of language and speech, the inextricable link between language and thought, language and reality, the unity of form and content, the connection between theoretical and empirical knowledge in philosophy and language. The values and moral attitudes that contain the pedagogical discourse are a consequence of its system-forming goal. The author identifies for the first time the features that influence the way of the formation of the communicative situation of pedagogical discourse, singles out and describes the goals and strategies of pedagogical discourse. The work explores the specificity of the addresser and addressee as the basic participants of the educational process. The author proves that pedagogical discourse is the main tool of socialization of the child’s emerging personality. A particular relevance in the study of pedagogical discourse lies in that the language has accumulated huge resources, making it possible to re-imagine and interpret the text of pedagogical orientation.
Linguistic methods of realization of intension of belief in a sport analytical media discourse
In order to study a sport analytical media discourse we analyze characteristic features of language and style of the media texts placed in printed and/or electronic media. In the focus of this research are linguistic techniques, which we use to implement the leading intension of belief belonging to important discourse-forming factors. We have established that in texts of the media of sport analytical journalism, methods of explicit pragmatical influence are mainly used. The intentional character of stylistics of sport analytical media texts differs not only in persuasiveness, but also in the emotional expressional estimation caused by expression of an authors’ position. The research contributes to studying the linguostylistic specifics of a sport media discourse and is of interest to the journalists specializing in the field of sport journalism.
Litvyak O.V., Akhidzhakova M.P.
Category value as way of an objectivization of semantic space of language
The paper explores values as the special culturological categories, that are a basis of value-semantic space of language, and identifies the types of values having the special heuristic importance in linguoculturological aspect. The authors arrive at a conclusion that there is a close relationship of the category value to language and thinking due to development of ideas of values in interaction with aspects of the person’s attitude to the world. The relevance of the category value to language semantics and paradigmatics of nominative means of language causes the choice of language and speech means of expression of knowledge and variation of units of the nomination. The data obtained within the presented scientific research promote definition of the fact that real estimates in the majority base not on abstracted samples; for a number of objects such samples do not exist at all. Therefore, the ontology of value depend on a situation of real or alleged estimation. Each new situation starts the linguo-cognitive mechanism of a specification and revision of a sample from which the person takes out the value judgment. Results of a research give the chance of systematization of approaches in questions of value defining and classification. Of great importance is the interpretation of values as emotionally charged facts for studying the fiction text. With the use of the obtained data, one can identify and analyze how axiological axioms can be applicable to material of a linguistic research.
Functional-semantic field of agreement in communicative aspect
This paper focuses on the research of functional-semantic field of agreement in the modern Russian language. This field is analyzed in a structural way for the first time therefore it correlates with an increasing interest in functional aspect of language phenomena and popular branches in linguistics. This work aims at the selection of linguistic tools for the expression of agreement considering semantic forms of thought. The research bases on linguistic observation and structural semantic analysis methods. Using the analysis of functional semantic field of agreement two microfields of agreement are isolated: a microfield of explicit agreement and a microfield of implicit agreement. Each of these microfields has specific features and tools of agreement expression, among them there is an agreement via confirmation, repetition and modal words or modal particles in communication process where positive attitude of interlocutors to actions or words is established. Agreement can be direct or indirect. The results of the research promote further development of theory of functional-semantic fields and can be used in teaching a course of the Russian language at linguistic departments in universities and can be borrowed for writing books and textbooks.
Sarigoz O.V., Abilov I.Sh.
Gestures as nonverbal lacunas and the collocations accompanying them
For the first time we seek to describe the gestures used by Turkish communicants and to classify them by comparing them with Russian gestures. When highlighting gestures, we took into account the principles of lacunarity - the absence of a phenomenon in a comparable language. The material of the study was the long-term observations of the authors of the process of communication of the native speakers of the Turkish language with representatives of different cultures, the analysis of fiction, from which one could draw descriptions of certain gestures, materials of modern media. The research methodology included a comparative analysis of the two languages in the synchronous section. Analysis of gestures has revealed: 1) most gestures are lacunae for Russian culture; 2) gestures, similar in performance, have distinctive features that do not allow them to equate to Russian gestures to the full. The possible coincidence of gestures in terms of performance, the growth of gestures borrowed from Western cultures suggest that nonverbal culture is a «living substance» that reacts flexibly to cultural and socio-political changes in society. Nevertheless, today it is possible to establish and describe purely Turkish gestures, which are an integral part of communication with the bearers of Turkish culture. The results of the study can be useful in teaching the Turkish language. Non-verbal communication should be included as a discipline in the course on the linguistics of the Turkish language.
Sitimova S.S., Novikov A.N.
On some morphological features of the Khatukayan-Adamiyan dialect
The paper dwells on morphological features of the Khatukayan-Adamiyan dialect of the Adyghe language. The purpose of research is to identify and describe some features in arrangement of nouns, adjectives and verbs in this dialect. The problems we solved are as follows: to describe the morphological features of the Khatukayan-Adamiyan dialect relating to formation of limit-diminutive degree of adjectives and to investigate infinite-finite forms of the dialect. Traditional linguistic methods used in this research include descriptive, comparative, method of the contextual analysis, as well as such techniques as observation and generalization. The revealed features of the Khatukayan-Adamiyan dialect are of scientific importance and of value for the Adyghe dialectology. The system analysis of morphological features of the Khatukayan-Adamiyan dialect is relevant because of insufficient research of the specifics of the Khatukayan-Adamiyan dialect in the Adyghe linguistics. The research of the problems connected with the grammatical nature of the Khatukayan-Adamiyan dialect and its functioning makes a certain contribution to the general theory of studying morphology of the Adyghe languages. The practical value of this research lies in that the obtained results can be useful when developing a course of lectures on dialectology of the Adyghe languages.
Syntactic models of formation of terms of subject domain «Cosmetology» (from material of the Russian and English languages)
The paper explores syntactic way of formation of terms of subject domain «Cosmetology» in the Russian and English languages. The syntactic way of formation of terms of cosmetology is the most productive in the studied terminology. The main structural models of cosmetology terms - phrases in the Russian and English languages are revealed and analyzed. By means of the descriptive analysis and methods of classification (for the analysis of conceptual and derivational structure of term units) it is proved that two-component phrases in the term systems under study prevail. The scientific-theoretical importance of work is that it contributes to the solution of problems of a term derivation and deepens an idea of a structure and the categorial device of terminology of subject domain «Cosmetology». Practical value lies in a possibility of use of material for lexicographic development of the bilingual Russian-English dictionary of terms of cosmetology.
Phonetic structure of root morphemes in the Hattian and Abkhaz-Adyghe languages
The morphemic composition of the Hattian language has not yet been studied. Identification of the Hattian root and derivational morphemes in the given article will make it possible to comprehend the mechanism of ancient word-building. The material of the study was the morphemes most often encountered in the formation of complex and derived nominal and verbal stems extracted from Hattian-Hittite bilinguals. A comparative-historical analysis of the Hattian and Abkhaz-Adyghe morphemes showed that monosyllabic morphemes of the open type make up not only the essential part of the Hattian vocabulary, but also the vocabulary of the Abkhaz-Adyghe languages. The coincidence or proximity of the quality of the Hattian and Abkhaz-Adyhge root morphemes confirm their genetic relationship. Reconstruction of the values of the Hattian morphemes is important for an adequate analysis of the modern meaning of words. The results of the study can be useful for writing the history of the Abkhaz-Adyghe languages.
Dynamics of semiotic characteristics of spatial designations of the word “top” in language
This paper examines the changes in spatial designations of the word “top” in language. In the analysis of evolution of semantics of the word “top” in Russian, the author pays special attention to pragmatics of the language sign. Taking into account a semiotic explanation of the phenomena of language asymmetry, the publication reveals and substantiates emergence of new plans of contents in language signs, thereby showing changes in interrelations between an object, the plan of expression of the sign and its pragmatics. For the first time, the author shows development of significative meanings in spatial signs symbols through a prism of a historical method, with attraction of various data. The work determines changes in understanding of the denotation of the described sign associated with an interpreter position evolving under the influence of mental principles during this or that era. It is possible to explain this, in particular, by reflection of religious beliefs. Results of this research can be used at the description of the language as sign system; in spite of the fact that the diachrony of signs is considered on Russian material, their institutionalization to some extent has universal character.
On phraseological units with the somatic components expressing a condition of the person in the Adyghe language
The paper deals with some phraseological units designating parts of a human body in the Adyghe language and showing a condition of the person. The analysis is made of some features of functioning of lexical units gu «heart», shkhe «head», ne «eye», e «hand» and sho «skin» as a part of the somatic phraseological units designating intellectual, physical and physiological conditions of the person. A methodological basis of the research includes the principles of the semantic, comparative, translation and statistical analysis that allows the author to deepen knowledge of somatic phraseological units of the Adyghe language and to define their place in the system of language, to reveal features of their functioning in language and in speech. Results of this research are also of theoretical and practical importance, which lies in use of material of phraseological units with somatic components during creation of a course of lectures on the Adyghe contemporary language and on the Adyghe phraseology, as well as in drawing up phraseological dictionaries.
Study of Arts
Circles of literary centrism in the Soviet cinema of the 1930s: consultants, art departments and censors
The second post-revolutionary decade was marked by the centralization of all spheres of the Soviet state. In the arts and, especially, in the cinema, this process showed itself in the development of censorship. The purpose of this research is to describe the way how the censorship enhanced the role of verbal forms of arts. This trend developed in parallel with a large-scale restoration of literary centrism, which took the leading position in the Russian culture in the second half of the 19th century, but which was destroyed by the synesthesia avant-garde potential in the 1910s − the early 1920s. In this situation, preventive censorship, detected in various forms (art departments, consultants), was an important stage in the film production. However, contemporaries often characterized censorship institutions as ineffective and detrimental to the creative process. Historical and typological analysis leads to a conclusion that it happened largely because the literary-centric worldview bearers were confident in the directly-proportional dependence between the quality of the film and the quality of the verbal material, for example, the screenplay. Relevance of the subject and the importance of work are caused by still poor study of this problem.
«Artaxerxes» of Thomas Augustine Arne – the English opera-seria
An analysis is made of Artaxerxes, an opera of the English composer Thomas Augustine Arne (1710-1778) which has become the first opera-seria created in English. The purpose of this research is studying historical prerequisites of emergence of this composition on the English stage in the middle of the 18th century. The work is considered from the point of view of its compliance to model of the Italian opera-seria. The author shows specific lines characteristic of the English theatrical genres. Due to small popularity of a figure of Arne in the Russian musicology, the research of Artaxerxes is one of stages aimed at disclosure of his creative heritage for musicians, both researchers and performers. The methodology of work is defined by traditions of domestic and foreign musicology in the field of a research of English and, partly, Italian musical theater of the 17-18th centuries, and the basic one is the historicism method. As a result of studying history of creation and composition of the work, the author of this paper has revealed influence of the outstanding opera singer Charlotte Brent on creation of Artaxerxes, full compliance of composition of the opera to structure of the Italian opera-seria and availability of a large number of the items created in the genre of a song and sending to national English tradition of theatrical music.
Performance on the saxophone in the late twentieth century: characteristic features of evolution
For the first time, this paper studies original historical processes that influenced the development of saxophone performance, which has become the most priority area of wind creativity at the end of the twentieth century. Its widespread popularization was due to the intense transformations that occurred as a result of a change in the perception of the saxophone in the circles of the elite musical community. In this connection, the reorganizations in the vocational education system related to the social status of the instrument are of special interest for the research, since they contributed to a rapid rise in the skill level of saxophonists of different styles. The reforms introduced led to a sharp increase in the number of national schools, within which an entire galaxy of talented instrumentalists of the new formation has been promoted. Thanks to their progressive activities, a large amount of instructive, methodological, scientific and fiction literature appears, reflecting the cardinal transformations inherent in this time. Among other things, the author focuses on the factor, which is very significant for the analyzed period, as the mutual enrichment of the academic and jazz spheres, because these trends have determined a rather wide range of forms and types of music making. In the conclusion it is noted that the reason for such a rapid and qualitative evolution of the performing arts was the realization of the saxophone individuality.
Reva G.V., Tsergoy T.A.
Aestheticization of the ugly in art
Ðàññìàòðèâàåòñÿ âîïðîñ î ïðîäîëæàþùåìñÿ ïðîöåññå ïåðåîöåíêè êóëüòóðíûõ è ýñòåòè÷åñêèõ öåííîñòåé â èñêóññòâå ÕÕI âåêà, â êîòîðîì îòìå÷àþòñÿ òåíäåíöèè ôèêñàöèè è ýñòåòèçàöèè áåçîáðàçíîãî, åãî ïîïóëÿðèçàöèè. Öåëü çàêëþ÷àåòñÿ â ðàññìîòðåíèè ôåíîìåíà áåçîáðàçíîãî, àíàëèçå èñòîðè÷åñêîé ðåòðîñïåêòèâû åãî ïðîÿâëåíèÿ â ðàçëè÷íûõ âèäàõ èñêóññòâà. Îòìå÷åíî, ÷òî áåçîáðàçíîå êàê àíòèïîä ïðåêðàñíîìó ìîæåò áûòü ïðåäñòàâëåíî ïðàêòè÷åñêè âî âñåõ ñôåðàõ áûòèÿ: â ïðèðîäå, ìîðàëè, ïîëèòè÷åñêîì óñòðîéñòâå îáùåñòâà, èñêóññòâå è ò.ä. Àêòóàëüíîñòü òåìû îáóñëîâëåíà òåì, ÷òî àêòèâíàÿ ýñòåòèçàöèÿ áåçîáðàçíîãî â èñêóññòâå ÕÕI â. âåäåò ê ïîòåðå îáùå÷åëîâå÷åñêèõ öåííîñòåé è èäåàëîâ â õóäîæåñòâåííûõ ïðîèçâåäåíèÿõ, ÷òî ñïîñîáñòâóåò ðàçðóøåíèþ äóõîâíûõ îñíîâ ÷åëîâåêà, åãî öåííîñòíûõ îðèåíòàöèé. Ïîêàçàíî, ÷òî öåëè, çàäà÷è, ìîòèâû ñîçäàíèÿ ïîäîáíûõ ïðîèçâåäåíèé îïðåäåëåíû ïðè÷èíàìè îáúåêòèâíîãî è ñóáúåêòèâíîãî ïîðÿäêà. Óñòàíîâëåíî, ÷òî ïðîÿâëåíèå áåçîáðàçíîãî êàê àíòèïîäà ïðåêðàñíîìó â èñêóññòâå âñå æå íåèçáåæíî.
Features of development of printed graphics in a paradigm of the modern fine art
The process of the printed graphics’ adaptation is analyzed in contemporary art, thus developing a system in a competitive environment of printmaking and digital technologies. The article focuses on need for popularization of the printed graphics in the form of exhibitions, workshops, conferences and educational projects for a wide audience in order to demonstrate opportunities and variety of modern printmaking techniques and technologies. Research methodology is based on the analysis of printmaking developments in the historical and international context. Notably, its highest advantages are accessibility, mobility, approach variability, and the sense of using materials with the main benefit being the possibility of circulation. The greatly increased range of innovative technologies affords printed graphics to integrate successfully into contemporary art. Different approaches of Russian and Mexican universities for reaching printed graphics are researched and compared to each other. The successful experience of Russian and Mexican students’ projects of creating Artist’s book together utilizing the processes of both etching and lithography reveals the benefit and value of cross-cultural communication. Methodological approaches to the promotion of printed graphics are relevant in terms of studying the printmaking system in higher education.