#3 / 2007
Linguistics. Theoretical Problems of Linguistics
E.N. Ryadchikova and S.V. Tarasenko
Linguistic and cultural principles and ways of reflection of national consciousness and national culture in language
The paper discusses reflection in language of national culture, thoughts of people about life and national values, traditions of stereotypes, interrelation of the person and a society, language definition of a national belonging and criteria of self-consciousness. The authors examine the predominating role of a national language and language units for identification of national consciousness and cultural senses. Anthropocentrism is investigated as a special principle of studying the national language person.
Setting up of a linguistic metatheory within the framework of a history of linguistics
The situation in a system of linguistic knowledge nowadays when it is a conglomerate of data that are diverse in origin and frequently not reduced in a uniform pattern on language, testifies that the system is in the process of organization. The paper examines aspects of systematization of this knowledge, reveals various mutual relations and interrelations between its parts and elements during creation of a uniform scientific pattern of language.
À standard language and modern social-territorial dialects in the Great Britain
The paper examines the modern social-linguistic situation in the Great Britain, namely strengthening of a role of dialect forms of language, the diglossia situation, the literary form – Estuary English, the reasons of this situation etc.
Linguistic and cultural aspects of a language sign (on a material of the Adyghe, Hattic and Hettic languages)
Investigation of the value of language units in a context of cognitive structures allows better understanding a role of the person as a carrier of a certain experience and knowledge in formation of language meanings. In the paper the author proceeds from the precondition that natural languages are culture codes differently reflecting and structurizing the world around.
Actualizers of author's neologisms in the text and author's neologisms as actualizers of the text (on a material of the author's neologisms of Eugeny Evtushenko)
In analyzing the texts containing author's neologisms the functional – pragmatic features of word-forming means, their text-forming role and interaction with other units of the text are most fully displayed in acts of communication.
Occasional words with the attribute meaning in mass-media texts: a cognitive-pragmatic aspect
The paper studies occasional words with the attribute meaning as one of universal basic aspects of categorization of the objective reality.
Univerbation as a phenomenon of word formation from the point of view of social linguistics
The tendency to economy language means is displayed at various language levels. Univerbation as the phenomenon of compressive word formation is observed during social relations in various layers and in the groups united in accordance with a generality of interests. This phenomenon is caused by internal language laws and extra-linguistic factors.
Specific features of chess term functioning in the specialized context
A sphere of term fixing and a sphere of term functioning are generally differentiated. The paper examines specific features of chess term functioning in special texts, as well as syntagmatic relations of terms distinguishing a chess and sports terminology as a whole from terminology of other branches of knowledge.
The dynamics of polysemy and homonymy in the Russian language and its lexicographic interpretation
The paper discusses development of lexical semantics of separate words and traces in this connection lexicographic development of words with multiple meanings and homonyms in different dictionaries of the Russian language.
Titles in the creolized text (on a material from "glossy" fashion magazines)
The analysis of interrelation between a concept of images and a concept of the verbal text reveals double decoding of the information incorporated in the creolized text, which results in perception of this kind of the text by the person as a uniform concept (sense).
Caucasian terms in the lexical system of the Russian language
Revealing of full volume of the Caucasian lexicon and specificity of its functioning in Russian is important both for definition of its status among borrowings and for successful realization of programs concerning preservation and development of state languages and realization of a language policy in such multiethnic region as the Northern Caucasus.
G.B. Gurtskaya and V.B. Gurtskaya
Abkhazian terms in Fazil Iskander’s prose
Creativity of Fazil Iskander, which is on a joint of both Russian and Abkhazian culture, has absorbed elements of two cultures. Data on the intercultural communication of two peoples – Abkhazes and Russians – find original reflection in word formation of the writer. The situation of their interference is of certain interest for linguists both as the way of studying bilinguism and as the aspect of studying individual style of the writer – bilinguist.
Speech behaviour of the manipulator as a rhetorical phenomenon
Manipulation as a phenomenon in oral-speech communication exists for a long time (the 5th -century Sophists in Ancient Greece). Subsequently the science developed in a direction of condemnation of the individual who used in speech unlawful methods, the dodges, creating barriers in dialogue. This traditional aspect is also important today: questions on the reasons of manipulation, characteristics of Manipulators, the ways of influence on them are acute as well. However, the new rhetorical science, proceeding from complicated modern realities, recommends manipulative methods and tools, emphasizing that “they themselves are neutral, fair or dishonest only at use, turning into white or black rhetoric”.
Labialization and delabialization as phonetic processes: development of labialized consonants during phonetic adaptation of loan-words in Abkhazian-Adyghe languages
Labialization and delabialization participate not only in articulation of sounds, they are also two opposite phonetic processes. In Abkhazian-Adyghe languages, labialization has received wider development compared to delabialization. Labialization in these languages continues to operate as a process and during phonetic adaptation various labialized consonants develop in loan-words.
The value of lexicon of the Shapsug dialect for historical lexicology and its role in enrichment of the dictionary structure of the Adyghe literary language (using a material from “Russian-Circassian or Adigsky dictionary” of L.Y. Lyulie)
The paper is devoted to lexicon of the Shapsug dialect and its role in enrichment of the dictionary structure of the Adyghe literary language (on a material from “Russian-Circassian or Adigsky dictionary” of L.Ya. Lyulie).
Predicative verbal idioms of Russian and Adyghe languages: structural and grammatical features
The paper is devoted to structural and grammatical features of verbal idioms, as well as to various models of verbal predicative phraseological units of Russian and Adyghe languages.
Scientific terminological phraseological units in English and Russian discourses.
The paper examines terminological phraseological units, which have left a scientific sublanguage and entered in the general use. During transition from special sphere into common-literary language the units under consideration get a semantic two-planned character. Keeping the etymological meaning, they are also used in modern English and Russian discourses and in the rethought metaphorical meaning.
Translation paraphrasing and its versions
The paper is devoted to versions of translation paraphrasing, which is an effective way of overcoming interlanguage and intercultural difficulties of translation. Translation is considered to be a process of creation in foreign language of the text being secondary in relation to the original. Use of a paraphrase in translation is caused by ability of language to give secondary name to subjects, conditions and processes.
Formal-semantic types of nominative sentences in languages of various typologies (on materials of the Karachevo-Balkar, English and Russian languages)
The paper discusses the formal-semantic types of nominative sentences in the Karachevo-Balkar, English and Russian languages. The author traces laws of expression of proposition by nominative sentences with names of various semantics as a nucleus; the most typical distributors of various semantic types of nominative sentences are revealed. Semantic classification of nominative sentences is constructed on principles of denotative semantics that means that the basis of classification of sentences under consideration is the object of a nomination.
Y.P. Nechay and N.V. Ignatieva
Author's plan of modal relations in E.Voynich's novel “The Gadfly” and in its translations into Russian
Comprehension of the author's intention for depicting of which elements of all levels of language are used, is possible with adequate perception of the author's modality of picture estimation in a work of art. The paper gives a comparative linguistic analysis of fragments from E.Voynich's novel “The Gadfly” in the original and in translation. This analysis allows to establish that, with a view of emotional – aesthetic influence, the writer uses various modal means and shows complicated shades of an emotional condition of the heroes. It is worthy of note that the author becomes the organizer of the narration and the ruler of destinies of the characters.
On formation of a bilingual person (as shown by Adyghe-Russian bilinguism)
In the paper, the author undertakes an analysis of the mechanisms of mastering the second language by the child. Features of a cognitive system of a bilingual person are examined.
Comprehension of the translation process as a multi-aspect phenomenon at the boundary of the 20th and 21st centuries
At the boundary of the 20th and 21st centuries, a historical-theoretical experience of translations is generalized in new conditions that are free from ideological criteria. Problems of translation studies are brought to the forefront. There is a cultural turn in translation studies, and translations are recognized as products of culture. The culturologic approach demands knowledge of a social and cultural context. Interest in culturologic phenomena increases. The modern theory of translation is included in a general philosophical paradigm as an interdisciplinary phenomenon.
A toolkit for the analysis of artistic translation
An attempt is undertaken to create a toolkit for the complex communicative-pragmatic analysis of artistic translation. Such modules of the research device as lingual-stylistic, artistic-aesthetic, culturologic and personal are distinguished. The special attention is given to creative aspects of reconstruction of the verbal-artistic information in translation.
Substantiation of the cognitive approach to a category of comic
In the paper, an analysis is made of the existing cognitive theories of comic that allow consideration of this category at deeper level, i.e. from a position of cognitive science.
Theoretical Problems of Literary Criticism
Integration of cultures and problems of studying the Soviet literature of the 20th century
Processes of cultural integration belong to the most significant phenomena of social-historical development. The integration revolution accelerates and intensifies cultural diffusion. Rapprochement of cultures influences formation of genres of the literature, styles and aesthetic directions. Theoretical comprehension of the art – aesthetic community named the Soviet literature plays the great role in this case. The picture of this unique phenomenon will be incomplete without studying history and the theory of new-forming literatures, their typological features, peculiarities of setting up, stages of development etc.
The modern neo-romantic poetry as “the parallel culture”
The paper gives brief definition of romantic outlook and examines the character of display of romantic outlook in modern poetry. The author makes a conclusion that in conditions of a modern cultural situation the neo-romantic poetry for some reasons is aesthetically subjected to repression and makes up the so-called “parallel culture”. The neo-romanticism at the present stage of its evolution repeats in many respects historical romanticism (romanticism as a direction) that is expressed in its direct subject, thematic and lexical continuity in relation to historical romanticism. In the final part of the paper possible prospects of neo-romanticism and neo-romantic poetry are discussed.
Tradition and innovation as the major components of literary creativity
In the paper, the author examines the theoretical aspect of the major literary critical concepts “tradition” and “the innovation” necessary for in-depth study of separate scientific problems. The scientific propositions of works of M. Bakhtin, R. Apresyan, A. Guseynov, V. Kozhevnikov, and L. Nikolaev are used as the principal ones.
Study of traditions of a poem about the past in the beginning and in the middle of the 1960s (I. Mashbash, A. Gadagatl', H. Beretar' and N. Bagov)
The poems devoted to the historical past of Adyghes are examined. In these poems, the authors use traditions of folklore and numerous methods of the oral national epos that give to works national colour. Influence of national folklore on formation of a historical poem is also investigated.
Postmodernist discourse of modern media culture
The paper discusses the problem of scientific identification of a condition of culture in a modern postindustrial society. The basic attention is given to a phenomenon of a postmodernism as a culturologic model of the present and to one of its major components – to post-structuralism.
The native land and foreign land: publicistic works of D.Ñ. Mirsky and A.V.Tyrkova-Williams created in England in the 1920-1940-s
In the paper, the author examines publicistic works of D.C. Mirsky and A.V. Tyrkova-Williams created in England in the 1920-1940-s. An analysis is made of the works the main problems of which are freedom of creativity, preservation of Russian national culture and literature in emigration.
On a problem of satirical and comic in the Russian literature of the 1920-1930s
The idea that any theme excludes the primitive – household approach and demands the class, so-cial-political approach was realized in development of satire, restricting it to strict ideological frame-works, that have had an essential effect on the ideo-logical and art side of separate satirical works in the 1920-1930s.
The Russian literature
Lyrical conflict in poetry of the 1950s
The paper discusses the evolution of the lyrical conflict in literary process of the 1950-1960s. Its originality is related to a change of the internal contents of the conflict caused by influence and over-coming of absence of conflict. The paper is basing on the theoretical material (G. Pospelov, L. Timofeev, L. Ginzburg, J. Lotman, A. Kovalenko etc.) and on works of N. Zabolotsky, Y. Smelyakov, A. Tvardovsky etc.
Ecology of a nature as an object of art comprehension in modern Russian prose
The paper discusses ecology of a nature as an object of art comprehension in modern Russian prose. Numerous problems in Russian prose, both ecological and spiritual – moral, are acute again because they are almost not investigated in a context of modern art – ecological publicism (S. Zalygin, V. Rasputin, V. Astafiev), and plus to this, influence of Russian great art and publicistic prose on creativity of national writers is poorly studied.
The composite analysis of a poem “Village” of A.S. Pushkin
The complete analysis of a literary work, and in particular revealing the contents of its art form, contains considerable difficulties for the teacher of the literature.
The nature of artistic synthetism in V.Veresaev's creativity
The formation of a new stage in development of Russian prose and the literature as a whole is investigated on the basis of the analysis of V.Veresaev's creativity. A “new” Chekhov’s (Bunin’s) direction in Russian literary creativity is shown.
Problems of Studying Literatures of the Peoples of the Russian Federation
Interaction of ideas of North Caucasian new literatures and the Russian literature
The paper discusses folklore sources, the value of Russian literary tradition, art features of North Caucasian new literatures at a stage of their setting up, their shortcomings, the role of the first North Caucasian authors in creation of national literatures etc.
A genre, a historicism and classification of T.Kerashev’s short stories
The author considers actual problems of modern literary criticism, a genre and classification of T.Kerashev’s short stories.
A modern essay and a story in the Adyghe literature (the aspect of intragenre typology)
Despite the considerable attention of writers and literary critics to small narrative genres in the Adyghe literature their value is so great that they demand constant steadfast attention at each new stage of their development as an independent object of research. Having concentrated special attention to modern books of essays and on lyrical prose (H. Ashinov, P. Koshubaev, Y.Chuyako), the paper examines the theory and methodology of genre differentiation of modern small prose, its intragenre variances basing on theoretical propositions of leading researchers: M. Kunizhev, A. Skhalyakho, K. Shazzo, U. Panesh, E. Shibinskaya, S. Khut, T. Chamokov, M. Khachemizova, R. Mamiy, A. Tkhakushinov, H. Tleptsershe etc.
Specific features of a lyrical-epical genre in the literature of the Northern Caucasus peoples
The paper discloses specific features of a lyrical-epical genre, characteristic of the literature of the Northern Caucasus peoples, as well as influence of traditional folklore subjects on creativity of the North Caucasian poets.
Specificity of formation and development of the genre of the novel in the Chechen-Ingush literature
The paper discusses setting up of the genre of the novel in the Chechen-Ingush literature and creativity of S. Baduev, M. Mamakaev, S.-B. Arsanov, H. Oshaev and other writers, who played extremely important role in formation of the national literature and who defined development of the genre of the novel in the modern Chechen literature.
Female archetypes in a figurative system of the Adyghe modern novel (Y. Chuyako, N.Kuek, H.Beshtokov, D.Koshubaev)
The paper discusses novels of Adyghe modern writers N. Kuek, Y. Chuyako, H. Beshtokov and D.Koshubaev, whose creativity is characterized by presence of a rich folklore-mythological context. An analysis is made of the figurative system of novels of these authors from a position of definition of influence of mythological poetry on image formation. The author reveals and systematizes base sources of through author's images and motives – universal archetypes, investigates the ways of representation of archetypes in mythological, folklore and in art images, determines the correlation of epical and mythological components in image formation.
An Adyghe short story (on general and special in typology)
An Adyghe short story, as the literary term-concept, has no developed theoretical base because it is a youngish genre in new literature. But it is well investigated as the art structure of a prosaic folklore genre, though it is not identical to literary structure and structure of the short story. The Adyghe short story has the typological qualities common with the Russian and European short story, as well as it has its own national features.
The Adyghe literature in the 1920-1960s
In the paper, the author describes the development of the Adyghe literature in the 1920-1960s. The typological classification offered in due time by Y.Surovtsev helps to understand laws of development of both the literature of our country of the 20th century and newly-formed literatures. According to this gradation the prose of the 1920-1930s is singled out in the separate period. The novel of T. Kerashev “The way to Happiness” is the most typical phenomenon of this time. The art of a word of the 1940s – the beginning of the 1950s is a special layer in the structure and style. The literature at the present stage (since 1956) is considered to be of the period of active search and creative achievements that is reflected in formation of prose genres.
The horseman of honour (on place of Tembot Kerashev and Alim Keshokov in spiritual culture of Adyghes)
Tembot Kerashev and Alim Keshokov, classics of Adyghe literatures (Kabardian and Adyghe), who evolved in the identical environment and created at the same time, reflect in their creativity moral and philosophical criteria of people. They are spokesmen of spiritual culture of Adyghes. Two great prose writers were always in a saddle like horsemen – soldiers on the guard of artistry of our literatures reflecting highly moral human principles of reason, goods, fairness and beauty.
Social-historical and genre preconditions of strengthening a personal element in North Caucasian prose (1930-1950s)
In the paper, development of the national literature during 1930 – 1950s is examined. This is the period specificity of which is the art historicism implying at the given stage the origin and development of some elements of lyricism. The author studies this process and its results basing on the works of North Caucasian writers.
T.M. Stepanova and L.P. Bessonova
Typology of folklorism in literary texts
The problem of connection of poetry with oral national creativity is one of the most actual and interesting. Scientific research of such connections has an old tradition. It was initiated by A.Vostokov in his “Experience in Russian poem formation”. In the 19th century, a well-known “mythological school” has appeared (founders are brothers V. and Y. Grimm). It found followers among the West-European (A. Kun, V. Shvarts, M.Muller, A.Pikte, T.Benfey etc.) and the Russian scientists (F.I.Buslaev, A.N.Afanasiev, V.F.Miller), aspiring to comprehend sources of poetic thinking of the people. In studying this question the works of A.N. Veselovsky, N. Kostomarov, A.A. Potebnya, P.V. Kireevsky, A.N. Pypina were of special value.
S.L. Zukhba and E.M. Maliya
Akhyn – the patron of large horned livestock in the Abkhazian-Adyghe mythology
In the paper, all basic data on the patron and a deity of large horned livestock in the Abkhazian-Adyghe mythology are investigated in detail. Both folklore and ethnographic materials of Abkhazes and Adyghes are widely used.
Artistic – expressive means in poetics of the Adyghe lyrical songs
The aesthetic originality of lyrical songs of Adyghes is elucidated. In the paper, an analysis is made of artistic – expressive means of lyrical songs in their poetics.
“Histories” of Daut Byrs in a context of humorous culture of Adyghes
On the basis of materials obtained during folkloric-ethnographic expeditions in Turkey (1997-1999, 2002, 2005) some questions related to the ways and forms of actualization of humorous culture characteristic of Turkish Adyghes are examined. The author reveals representativeness of humorous debates and analyzes artistic features of “histories” of poet – improvisator Daut Byrs and the dzheguako character of mastery of his performance.
Folkloric sources of I.A. Il’in’s creativity (on a material of work “Singing Heart. The Book of Silent Contemplations”)
The paper is devoted to one of the three I.A. Il'in’s works “Singing Heart. The Book of Silent Contemplations”. The author interprets the applying of the philosopher to subjects traditional for folklore and the use by him of the form characteristic of mythological stories and works of classical folklore.
The Adyghe humorous culture: contextual conditionality
The paper examines the carnival-humorous culture of Adyghes as the parallel existing phenomenon reflecting and shading a system of social norms and prohibitions, thereby approving their importance in the inversion form.
The Adyghe languages and folklore in a system of broadcasting (1926-1950)
When a radio appeared, the languages and folklore had got an opportunity of entering a new sphere which rendered huge influence on their further development. In the paper, the author discloses a difficult way of entry of both the Adyghe languages and folklore to a system of broadcasting.
Study of Arts
Some tendencies in artistic taste developing in modern students
The paper examines problems of research of musical taste in the modern scientific literature of our country and abroad. The special attention is given to the analysis of social and cultural forms of musical – artistic taste of the person. The basic tendencies are established in development of musical taste of students at the end of the 1990s and at the beginning of the 21st century. As a result of studies, the author offers to introduce the special course at the universities devoted to studying various styles and genres of modern musical culture.
The Eucharist church chanting in the Russian Orthodox Church
At a boundary of the 20th and 21st centuries divine service singing in the Russian Orthodox Church, in addition to canonic genres, includes the Eucharist church chanting, representing in most cases concerts of sacred music for chorus a cappella, less often, the Psalms, sacred songs and celebratory Christmas carols. The paper is devoted to the Eucharist genres in divine service practice, to the attitude of attendants of church and regents to an opportunity of performance of various kinds of Russian concerts of sacred music.
Specificity of research of space in music: on inclusion of an analytical method
In the paper, the author undertakes an attempt to analyze the different approaches and methods existing in musicology of our country to study a category of space, namely the dialectical-phenomenological, complex, ontological, intrinsic, semiotic and differentiated. They form the “universal” direction basing on studying the universal properties of musical space. Inclusion of the analytical method, aiming at investigating spatial properties of each component of musical matter, including a musical sound, means of musical expressiveness, musical intonation and others can essentially add the knowledge of both a category of space in music, and specificity of musical space in style of separate composer.
“Box of the thoughts” by A.G. Rubinstein as a document of the epoch
In the paper, the author makes an analysis of the memoirs of outstanding Russian musician of the 19-th century Anton Grigor'evich Rubinshtein. The author considers the reasons, why the complete publication of this book in the pre-revolutionary and Soviet times was impossible. The structural analysis of the memoirs is also presented (approximately 20 themes: art and society, philosophy, aesthetics, typological and psychological phenomena of the human nature etc.). The particular attention is given to the question of the policy and authority. The thoughts of A.G. Rubinstein are very important nowadays.
Ecological aspects of musical-instrumental culture of Western Adyghes
The paper discusses the questions of singling out instrumental culture of Western Adyghes from the general Adyghe one and opportunities of its consideration as an independent system. The author offers to consider the instrumental culture of Western Adyghes as integrity, ecology of which is provided with characteristics of isolation, adaptability, self-preservation and with the expanded reproduction. Distinctions between the Western-Adyghe and Eastern-Adyghe instrumental traditions are shown using specific examples.
“You are Scholars, and of Course, You Know This Better than Me”: Few Issues of the Perception of Traditional Music by Ethnomusicologists and by the Carriers of the Traditions
The article discusses few cases when the differences in the perception of traditional music by the professional ethnomusicologists and by the carriers of the traditions caused serious misunderstanding of the existing facts. The article is mostly based on the Georgian fieldwork materials, collected by the author of the article in the 1970-1990s. Among the discussed cases are: (1) the problem of finishing the traditional songs (it is suggested, that some traditional genres, like lullabies, do not actually have the ending of a song), (2) the problem of the title of the traditional songs (it is suggested that traditional songs might not have titles, instead when needed, the first words of the song or the social function of the song is mostly used), (3) the problem of the relationship between the performers and the listeners (it is suggested, that unlike the common “classical” model of dividing the society on performers and listeners, in many traditional societies there is no such division).
Vocal-choral lessons as the important means of formation in schoolboys of the emotional-valuable attitude to the world in interpreting an artistic image of folk – song folklore
The modern social and cultural situation puts forward a task before teachers, teachers of music and heads of children's choral collectives not only to know the contents of a subject and a technique of its teaching, but also to master subtleties of dialogue with children, to be able to form the correct attitude to the world (to a nature, to the person, to a society, to knowledge, to activity, to himself, to values, to fine and ugly) to be able to operate emotions, to use reasonably the emotional sphere of the child during teaching, to understand, comprehend and realize axiological and educational potential of teaching to choral singing of folk songs. Establishing a connection with objects of world around through artistic images of folk songs, the child comprehends, feels the actions and establishes the deliberate valuable relations. Just the valuable relation, despite its complexity, dynamism, discrepancy, is the central category of education, it fills and forms moral perfection of rising generation.
An invitation to the wedding in the Kuban folklore tradition
The article is devoted to the specialties of one of the stages of wedding ceremony in the Kuban traditional culture, namely to an invitation to the wedding. This stage realizes traditional folk meanings of the wedding ceremony using parallel ceremony codes, including characters, things, space and others, that are systematically connected. The musical genres as a part of acoustic code play an important role in a rite of an invitation to the wedding. Wedding songs are used in communicating between villagers, they also comment the ritual process and play a security function. The important structural component in the process of transition of the ceremonial meaning is the musical and poetical rhythm of songs.