#2 / 2008
Linguistics. Theoretical Problems of Linguistics
Language as a valuable source for perceiving a history of people
In the paper, the author expresses an idea that the history of language is inseparable from a history of people. Language provides a material not only for studying ethnogenesis and cultural-historical relations of people, but it presents extensive data for restoration of economic and spiritual life of people. The language of Adyghes, together with Abkhaz and Ubykh, form a separate independent branch of the Iberian-Caucasian family of languages. Language contacts are of interest for historians.
Youth slang as a social variety of speech
Today many researchers pay the increasing attention to alive informal conversation. The greater part of it is slang or jargon. This paper discusses the problem of the possible reasons for penetration of this lexicon into language. The author intends to solve the following tasks: to investigate the theoretical positions concerning such concepts as “slang” and “jargon” and to discuss the correlation of these concepts. This study makes a certain contribution to researches of the reduced lexicon, on the one hand, and youth slang, on the another.
On the aesthetic function of a poetic rhythm
Linguopoetics has no scientific explanation till now as to how the poetic rhythm carries out the aesthetic function. This paper is an attempt to solve this problem. It proves experimentally that the order of manifestation of a rhythmic figure in the verse is an aesthetic category which, in its turn, influences the rhythmic distribution of metric stresses in a stanza.
Synharmonism in Terekemeisky dialect of the Azerbaijan language
This is the first study of synharmonism as the morphonological phenomenon in dialects of the Azerbaijan language. The purpose of this research is disclosing of a phonologic nature of synharmonism in Turkic languages. The basic phonetic function of synharmonism is preservation of a homogeneous timbre in a word as obligatory element of its phonetic shape. Both vowels and consonants that are elements of a synharmonic sound complex are equally under the influence of a synharmonic timbre.
Modern forms of idioms in a context of subculture as the dynamics factor of conceptualization of a language picture of the world
In the paper, the author examines modern forms of idioms in a context of subculture in terms of the dynamics of conceptualization of a language picture of the world. The linguoculturological analysis of forms of modern idioms is conceptually generalized, the conceptual – terminological device of research of their characteristic, mechanisms of formation and dynamics, as well as the basic aspects of distinction of “cultural” and “subcultural” phraseology are analyzed. The theoretical review – generalization of existing scientific interpretations and definitions of concept “jargon” is given, its role and a place in modern idiomatic expressions are considered.
Methodical means and forms of the organization of Russian connected speech training of the pupils of national school
The paper discusses methodical means and forms of the organization of Russian connected speech training of the pupils of national school, promoting formation of their base communicative skills.
Lexical and semantic features of S.Ya. Marshak’s translations
Skill of the poet in creation of Russian versions of English verses for children is analyzed using a material of the English originals and S.Ya. Marshak's translations. In the paper, the author examines compositions in the form of “poetry of nonsense”, with paradoxical vision of the world and the bright game basis displayed in a choice of language and stylistic means. The stress is made on lexical and semantic features of S.Ya. Marshak's translations of the English folklore. On the one hand, the poet aspires to keep maximum the contents of the original, and on the another hand, he approaches it to the Russian reader, replacing the English realities by Russian.
Language features of lullabies (using a material of different system languages)
Problems of mutual relation of language and culture, language and folklore are now actual and in many respects priority. This is caused by the fact that the most ancient conceptions about the world are fixed in folklore and influence formation and reflection of national mentality. The work is devoted to a lullaby poetry, the great importance of which is reflected in the culture of every nation.
Mechanism of formation of pseudo-referent nominations in works of the genre of fantasy and specific features of their translation into Russian
The paper deals with the notion of pseudo-referent nomination. The process of creating and variants of translation of such nominations in the books of the English writer J.K.Rowling about Harry Potter are analyzed.
Speech tonality and melody in English and Russian prosody
The main research problem is to prove experimentally that the perception of an utterance intonation structure is determined not only by the character of interaction of its well-known parameters (such as tone, loudness, tempo, timbre) but also by speech tonality. Specific ways of interaction of the latter and the melody of English and Russian prosody are discussed in the paper.
Euphemisms in social fields of activity: political correctness and “a wooden language” (using the French language as an example)
The author investigates the use of euphemisms in a political discourse. The concept of euphemisation of speech is understood as dynamic process of the cognitive character reflecting pragmatic aims of the communication.
The concepts of love and hate in Russian and English languages
The paper analyses the concepts of love and hate. An attempt is made to show the national-cultural specifity of language consciousness. The paper presents the lexical definitions of love and hate which reflect the ideas about them in the “common” perception, i.e. the way of their language conceptualization. The analysis of the proverbs and sayings about love and hate shows that the universal and the national in them in the Russian and English languages are displayed in a set of attributes reflecting the structure of these concepts.
A pragmatic potential of phraseological units of the professional and terminological origin in English and Russian discourses
The major function of any unit of the language, including the idiomatic, is the pragmatic function, i.e. a purposeful influence of a language mark on the addressee. Attention is given to the pragmatic aspect of functioning of professional and terminological idioms, a good command of which is a necessary condition of the successful effective communication.
Culture of the English-speaking world as the factor of interpersonal dialogue in the sphere of business communication
The modern world is characterized by political, economic and cultural integration. For maintenance of various and multilevel contacts many Russians study the English language as this language is used in the international dialogue. An indispensable condition of success in having a good command of a foreign language, in addition to pure linguistic norms and rules, is mastering bases and principles of functioning the foreign culture.
Theoretical Problems of Literary Criticism
Problems of studying the common ideological-aesthetic character of twentieth century native land literature
At present the theoretical interpretation of unity of twentieth century native land literature is of great importance. It is well known that the common character of literatures has first been interpreted in a sociopolitical plan, and only in the 1960-1970’s was a study undertaken in view of specific contents, as well as in a methodological plane. This phenomenal historical artistic phenomenon should be considered using a comparative-typological method of the analysis. Of methodological significance is also the answer to the question: what should the basic criterion be while comparing the literary phenomena.
On the theory of the artistic conflict
The problem of the conflict in the paper is examined as a social and aesthetic problem. The author draws essential conclusions on a nature of the treated category of the conflict.
Interpretation of the creativity of V.V. Mayakovsky in modern literary criticism
This paper provides the review of some works of Russian researchers devoted to the creativity of V.V. Mayakovsky that were published in the perestroika and post-perestroika periods. The purpose of the paper is to give the objective analysis of criticism of V.V. Mayakovsky’s creativity and to reveal productive approaches to studying life and creativity of the poet at the present stage.
Genre features of a literary fairy tale (using a material of the Russian and English literature as an example)
This paper describes genre features of a literary fairy tale. The author reveals distinctive attributes of the genre. The literary fairy tale is examined as the independent genre having such features as the strongly pronounced game beginning, a folklore base, presence of an image of the author and some others.
The Russian literature
The originality of A. Platonov’s publicism of the 1920’s
The paper discusses the originality of A. Platonov’s publicism which has exerted essential influence on the artistic originality of the prose of the writer. Alongside with A. Platonov's well known publicistic works the author examines the article “Factory of the Literature” (1926), reflecting the basic problems of development of the Post-October literatures and questions of the basic discussions that proceeded in the literature in the beginning of the 20th century.
Reassessment of values (L.N. Tolstoy and scientific ideas of his time)
In making a joint analysis of a science and art it is important to take into account their significance in life of a society, as well as the fact that in the different periods of a history of the literature, at one moment the art and at another a science represented itself as a leader. Thus, in the Russian public thought of the 19th century the predominating place was occupied by the literature which has put and tried to solve all the most significant social problems. This is brightly demonstrated by the creativity of L.N. Tolstoy. The purpose of this research was to show influence of discoveries on the formation of outlook of the writer.
L.Tolstoy and M.Gorkiy: a way to “new realism”
In the paper, the author discloses the complex and many-sided concept of a national character of the literature, developed by Lev Tolstoy in his researches of the late 19th and the early 20th century. The author tries to understand an essence of a question, to analyse views of the writer concerning the acute problems of social and spiritual life of Russian people and to reveal new features of realism, caused by “a condition of epoch”. The ideas of L. Tolstoy are examined in a context of spiritual – moral markers of M. Gorkiy. This enables the author to state the objective, proved ideas and to draw the appropriate conclusions.
The personality of the poet in a context of time (in Kseniya Nekrasova's verses)
In the paper, the author raises and solves the questions of civil and creative rehabilitation of Kseniya Nekrasova, discusses her lyrics in a context of spiritual searches of epoch.
On some features of Kseniya Nekrasova's verses
Questions of poetics of Kseniya Nekrasova's verses are investigated in a context of poetry of the 20th century. The author proves the idea about an exclusive originality of lyrics of the poetess from the point of view of prosody.
The concept of the human being and the human personality in Russian thought of the 19th century
The human personality is the product of historical development formed in a specific society based on specific social relations. Therefore typical features of personal activity are characteristic of every specific stage. The dynamics of “the human’s idea” is directed by the ideological principles but is corrected by the general social-cultural context. During the second half of the 19th century in Russia the general cultural situation which was created by pluralism of philosophical and by heterogeneity of aesthetic concepts of the person should have an effect on development of the concept of the human personality. Problems of the human being and the human personality at that time were considered by Russian populist theorists, by Neoslavophilism, by the Right Hegelianism, by Orthodox philosophy, by representatives of Russian mysticism etc.
Interaction of a human and society in conditions of nonfreedom
The fiction examines the problem of the human being in close connection with his daily life, covering all spheres of human activity. Plurality of person images, his immeasurable complexity and inexhaustibility have caused significant difficulties in his philosophical and literary comprehension and in adequate – true reflection. The human, who has got in conditions limiting his freedom, does not become free from laws of the society, which has punished him. The author considers this using an example of works of Dostoevsky “The Notes From the Dead House” and Chekhov “The Island of Sakhalin”.
Problems of Studying Literatures of the Peoples of the Russian Federation
Artistic interpretation of a category of time in the Adyghe modern novel (Yu.Chuyako, N.Kuek)
The Adyghe modern novel about the historical past is closely connected to folklore-mythological sources. Such are Yu.Chuyako's novel “The Legend on the Iron Wolf” and N.Kuek’s novel “The Wine of Dead”. In these novels the presence of mythological poetics causes features of a spatial-time continuum. In the paper, the author undertakes an attempt to study influence of mythological poetics on a category of time that undergoes the certain transformation. The tendency of replacement of linear – historical time by mythological time is marked. This allows us to speak of presence of the phenomenon of spatialization.
Small artistic prose of Ibragim Tsey
The paper provides the analytical material about genre-style distinctions of a short novel and a story of I. Tsey, entered in a context of life and creativity of the Adyghe writer. Accordingly the scientific reasoning is combined with the artistic – publicistic review.
Translation as a part of the national literature
Translation is one of the important parts of literary process. The translated literature in Adygheya has played the important role during cultural integration and national self-affirmation. The first writers and poets were engaged in translations: T.Kerashev, A.Khatkov, I.Tsey etc. The works of A.S.Pushkin translated by A.Khatkov, I.Mashbash and M.Emizh have become an integral part of the Adyghe literature.
Interrelation of the person and a nature in the story of Tembot Kerashev “Abrek” (1959)
Presently there exist a lot of scientific researches, representing a versatile and deep studying of the creativity of Tembot Kerashev. However, among such variety of researches there are few investigations revealing a role and functions of a landscape in works of the writer. This paper discusses the character of interrelation of landscape sketches with artistic images of heroes in the story of T.Kerashev “Abrek” (1959). In the text, there are the pictures of a nature being quite self-sufficient and supplementing precisely images of heroes.
Cognation of folklore and literatures of Northern Caucasus
The author investigates complex interrelations of the literature with folklore and myth, reveals folklore motives and the devices included in artistic works and determines definitions with reference to a specific material.
From a history of the creation of novel-tetralogy “Gortsi” (“Highlanders”)
The present paper is devoted to the pre-history and the history of the creation of the first novel-tetralogy “Gortsi” (“Highlanders”) by Askerbi Takhirovitch Shortanov – the greatest epic work of art in the Kabardian literature of the second half of the twentieth century. In this work we compare the first chapters of the expected book by A.Shortanov “Shora” and the next editions of the first historical book of the novel published in 1954 and in 1976. On the basis of the comparison of the first and the second editions of the first book and the next three books “Gortsi” (“Highlanders”) there are reasons to think that the adaptation and the next volumes of the novel differ from the first one both in its artistic value and in correspondence of the action described in the novel to the historic events taken place.
Perception of foreign folklore motives and images in the Russian literature of 1800-1830-s.
The problem of connection of the poetry and the folklore is one of the most actual and interesting. The scientific investigation of these relations has the ancient tradition. It started still by A.Vostokov in his “Experience in Russian Versification”. The so-called mythological school has emerged in Germany in the nineteenth century. It had followers among the scientists of Russia and Western Europe, who were eager to study the sources of folk poetry. At the beginning of the nineteenth century the attention of the scientists was gradually changing from ancient to contemporary times. This can be explained by the more thorough and attentive studies of the world’s folklore with the elements of comparative analyses.
Folklore sources of spiritual character of future Russia (using a material of the creativity of I.A. Il'in)
The paper discusses the addressing of the Russian philosopher and publicist I.A.Il'in to mythology and to works of classical folklore as to reflection of the national views being a basis of a national image of Russia.
Reflection of a social system of Nogays in the heroic epos
The paper is devoted to research of problems of artistic reflection of public, social structures of the Nogays society during intensive formation of their statehood. The author examines epic works reflecting the major historical events in life of people, the significant phenomena in public consciousness and setting up of such concepts as “people”, “freedom” and “historical justice” and shows the character of artistic comprehension of these concepts.
Reality of Adyghe-Russian bilingualism in H.Z.Bagirokov's monography “Bilingualism: theoretical and applied aspects”
The significance of research of H.Z.Bagirokov is defined by its importance in social and theoretical aspects for the decision of general linguistic problems and by obscurity of Adyghe-Russian language contacts in the post-perestroika period, as well as by comprehension of linguistic, social-linguistic and linguoculturological factors influencing a level of development of bilingualism and the increase of the general culture of Russian speech of Adyghes.