#4 / 2012
Continuity of military traditions in war lyrics of the 20th century (a genre of a poetic prayer)
This paper discusses lyrical works of the periods of the First World War, the Great Patriotic War and the local military conflicts of the 20th century written in a genre of a poetic prayer. A profound continuity is shown to exist between them. Similar world perception in poets is noted, which is expressed in genre parallels, motives and images.
Functions of an image of story-teller R. Walton in M. Shelley's novel "Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus"
The paper discusses a role and functions of an image of the story-teller in M. Shelley's novel “Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus”. Basing on the analysis of a plot, compositional and spatial-time structure of work the author defines the place and value of story-teller R. Walton in system of characters. “The framing situation of telling”, the personality of a story-teller and his function as a spiritual double of the protagonist of Frankenstein are considered.
Art structure and compositional variations of the short story of Tembot Kerashev against the background of national literature
Insight was given into writing short stories by T. Kerashev in a context of classical experience in this genre. The author leaves from traditional estimates of features of T. Kerashev’s “small” prose and correlates observations with the characteristic qualities of creation of national oral short stories. Study of problems related to genre, style and philosophical and humanistic features of works of T. Kerashev in a typological context sheds new light and disclose new sides of a national art word, as well as testify to unlimited possibilities of esthetic qualities of its manifestation.
Philosophy of the nature and lyrical chronotope of I. Mashbash's poetry
The paper describes the philosophy of the poet’s life, related, first of all, to philosophy of time, space and the nature as a whole. Functions of images and nature symbols in lyrics of I. Mashbash are considered through a prism of an author's open position and lyrical chronotope of the verses devoted to various modifications of morning time of day. The author comes to a conclusion that the lyrical hero of poetry of I. Mashbash has harmonious and positive attitude to life.
Art historicism and romantic poetics of the novel of I.I.Lazhechnikov «The Last Novick»
This paper discusses I.I. Lazhechnikov’s historical novel “The Last Novick” in the context of the Russian and West European historical prose of the 1820-1830s. The author shows that it is necessary to differentiate the novel about the historical past and the historical novel presented in creativity of the writer. I.I. Lazhechnikov selected and grouped historical realities and built images and pictures according to the central idea of the novel, aspiring to provide them with symbolical capacity and high poetic expressiveness. It has been established that in this novel Lazhechnikov developed for the first time in Russian literature a wide historical panorama of one of the most heroic eras of the Russian past.
N.Kh. Emykova, R.B. Unarokova
Folklore on the Adyghean radio: record, storage, translation
The paper shows specificity of functioning of the Adyghean folklore on radio in new conditions when it has become possible to fix a sound on a magnetic tape, to carry out mounting and to store. An analysis is made of the ways of selection and record of authentic texts, as well as of their place in formation of radio musical fund. Features of fixing and storage of national songs are studied to use them repeatedly in broadcasts. With the radio engineering development and with the emergence of the magnetic tape fixing a sound, a new stage has come in relationships of Adyghe traditional folklore and radio. It has made huge impact both on a further existing of folklore, and on development of national radio journalism and radio art.
On a logical method in essayistics
The paper examines features of using the logical method in essayistics. Within the phenomenological and scientific paradigms the author proves that it is necessary to explore the logical organization of essayistic text. An analysis is made of a logical basis of essay underlining the intention of essayist to create a preliminary textual conception and the internal dialogue, demonstrating evolution of creative thought. It is inferred that a study of essay’s logical content will allow system interpretation of results of associative creation in journalism.
Current trends in development of graphic model of the newspaper
The paper discusses the design and makeup of modern newspapers. The author shows the role and a place of the compositional and graphic model of the newspaper in typological system of the Russian mass media, analyzes its specifics and describes actual trends in development of modern graphic design of newspapers. On the basis of this, active development of the theory of compositional and graphic model of the newspaper is proved, as well as new types of compositional and graphic models of newspapers are established and characterized.
Mediacontext in communication system
The paper addresses the notion of mediacontext of periodical as an element of mass communication system. Context is considered as a system, which combines different constituents of the communicative situation. The article examines the interaction of such components of culture and communication as text, discourse, language, communicative personality, periodical in shaping of a mediacontext. It is inferred that the content of mediacontext is composed from elements of interacting in a speech act systems: «culture», «communication», «mass communication», «text», «discourse», «language», sender», «addressee», «periodical».
Image of the Russian law-enforcement bodies in 2012: preliminary results of reform (according to results of complex studies of public opinion)
This paper deals with the developed image of law-enforcement bodies of the Russian Federation. A sociological research was carried out to draw up the author's characteristic of operating unit images of the Russian police existing in public opinion, as well as the sources of information forming an image of law-enforcement department of the country. An attempt is undertaken to make a complex analysis of the developed post-reform image of the Russian law-enforcement bodies. It has been established that one of the effective mechanisms of formation of the image of Russian contemporary law-enforcement bodies is the organization of system of the “police - population” feedback.
Features of the syntagmatic relations of verbal phrasemes in the Russian language: semantic and grammatical aspects
The paper examines the external and internal syntagmatics of verbal phrasemes in semantic and grammatical aspects. The grammatical aspect allowed allocation of actually verbal and infinitive phrasemes, first of which form a configuration in the form of a predicative syntagma, and the second, in the form of predicative and attributive syntagmas. A distinctive feature of semantic syntagmatics is lack of direct dependence of the external syntagmatics of phrasemes upon their internal syntagmatics.
National originality of the original and translation
The paper addresses the questions related to the theory and practice of a literary translation using an example of translation of the story by Kabardian modern writer Akhmedkhan Naloyev. It is noted that the methods used to translate the story answer certain estimation criteria. The organic unity of the writer and the translator is shown to result in system equivalence and adequacy of translations. It has been established that the most typical ways and methods of modern translation from the Kabardian language into Russian were reflected in the translation of the story by A.Naloyev.
Ways of the person nomination in works by L.Ulitskaya
The paper examines the lexical and phraseological units nominating the person as they are an important material to represent the person as a component of the world picture. This work sheds new light on ways to nominate the person in the art text (in prose by L.Ulitskaya). It is shown that ways to nominate the person help the reader to disclose the author’s idea. They are a tool to create an artistic image and, therefore, they are a basis to realize an art picture of the world.
Concept “friendship” in the Tabasaransky paremiological picture of the world
In the paper, a linguoculturological analysis is made of the concept “friendship” in the Tabasaransky paremiological picture of the world. The concept “friendship” staticizes aspiration of the person to a national unity and to unity with other people, as well as national moral and ethical priorities. A system of ideas of friendship in the Tabasaransky language picture of the world includes an aspect of such social relations as hospitality and the kunaks. The friendship is considered also when actualizing the family and blood relationships. Images of the enemy and a false friend act as an antipode of an image of the friend in a paremiological picture of the world.
Semantic interrelation of lexical units in speech
The paper discusses the language phenomena breaking semantic interrelation of lexical units in speech. The author gives the lexical unit combinations which are incompatible with each other, from the point of view of logic, and which hamper understanding the content of the text (speech). Examples from the Adyghean and Kabardino-Circassian languages are given and explained. A conclusion is drawn from the analysis of a material that it is necessary to reduce word compatibility violations in language or to explain that speech can contain violations of a logic order, rather than of language laws which are almost invariable.
B.M. Dzhandar, A.D. Loova
On functioning of personal names in the art text
The paper discusses functioning of personal proper names in the art text. It is shown that studying anthroponyms as the units of the language promotes comprehension of a deep meaning of work, allows the reader to get into author’s laboratory and reveal onomastic space of work. It is noted that the anthroponym dictionary of a work has dual motivation: on the one hand, motivational relations correspond to a real onomastic dictionary, on the other, the anthroponymic system is realized as an artificial system motivated with associative relations in a context of the work content.
A.A. Efremov, A.Yu. Baranova
Trends in the metaphorical term development within the basic subject areas of the English oil and gas terminology
The paper addresses the evolution of metaphorical units of English terminology in oil and gas industry. Metaphorical terms are arranged by the subject areas for the benefit of the systematic approach to their historical development. The subject areas showing the greatest potential for the further metaphorical evolution are established. It is inferred that the metaphorisation proceeds most actively in those subject groups which are characterized by positive dynamics of emergence and interpretation of new knowledge.
Verbalization of concept “love” in W.S. Maugham’s novels and their official translations: a cognitive-pragmatic aspect
The paper studies mutual influence and addition of cognitive and pragmatic approaches considering ethno-cultural peculiarities of the term “love” through analysis of its language representation and pragmatic realization in W.S. Maugham’s novels. Convergence of cognitive and pragmatic approaches in the field of cognitive-pragmatic paradigm allows us to penetrate into the conceptual system, which is verbalized in the texts of W.S. Maugham’s novels, and connect cognitive processes with a variety of linguocultural realities and situations.
A.M. Kambachokov, F.K. Urakova
Jargons as means of expression of the inherent expressivity in the Kabardino-Circassian language
The paper discusses the features of functioning of slangy speech in the communicative act. An analysis is made of expression of the inherent expressivity by using jargons in the Kabardino-Circassian language. The author examines the means of showing expressivity by using jargons and argo rather than their nature and specific properties. It is noted that the slangy lexicon is beyond the literary language. At the same time, it is often used in fiction to reproduce action in the story or in the novel and to give the speech characteristic of heroes. However, jargons, just as professionalisms and dialecticisms, should be used in a work as a part of speech of heroes rather than the author's speech.
The description of syntactic semantics of conjunction “and” in dictionaries and special scientific researches of the Russian and French languages
An analysis is made of the lexicographic and grammaticographic description of a co-ordinating conjunction “and” in the Russian and French languages. It has been revealed that the correlation of semantic and communicative - functional aspects of the use of conjunction “and” is insufficiently investigated. Basing on the criterion for analogousness/nonanalogousness, the author establishes semantic correlations of the conjunctions and defines constructions in which the conjunctions are not synonymous each other.
Representation of the nature of a language sign and its content
The paper discusses the universal nature of various aspects of the nature of a language sign in a natural language. Understanding the phenomenon of sign representation, its modeling and definition of a sign and its meaning depend on how the sign system of language is interpreted. The author proves that the direct connection of language with thinking, with the mechanism and logic of knowledge is a unique property of human language which serves as a universal sign system of designation of the whole variety of the objective world. It has been established that interpretation of signs of a natural language depends also on how the language itself is identified: as knowledge or reality, as summative system of means, expression or the sign activity regulating internal (mental) and external behavior of the person.
Searches for universal semantic metalanguage
The paper examines internationalisms as universal conceptual senses or universal linguocultural concepts. The problem related to international lexicon as a language phenomenon is closely connected with the phenomenon of semantic universals. In this connection the author shows that A.Vezhbitskaya’s idea about development of the universal metalanguage formed of fundamental concepts, which is clear to all people in the world, is extremely important for the analysis of international words. It is noted that for this purpose it is necessary to reveal a system of archisemes / primitives.
Concept of political ideology of T.A. Van Dijk
The paper deals with the approaches to definition of concept “ideology” and its place in modern political discourse. Ideology is shown to be immediately related to social cognition and manipulation of social consciousness. An analysis is made of the theory of political ideology of one of the leading discourse researchers T.A. Van Dijk. A detailed plan of political ideology analysis is given.
Euphemisation and return processes in a modern behavioural discourse
This work examines topical problems of (institutional) behavioural discourse on the basis of a material of mutual and opposite processes of euphemisation and dysphemisation. The cultural, cognitive and sociological factors influencing change of a discourse of carriers of the Russian and English languages are shown. The author’s classification of euphemisms and dysphemisms is given. It is established that the wide use of dysphemisms in mass media stimulates promoting and their penetration into wide everyday usage.
Treatment of philological conclusion as a special phenomenon of assessment sphere
The paper deals with the essence of assessment concerning ways of expression of the language consciousness, capable to uncover linguistic and complex expert examinations and conclusions which are drawn on certain disputable discourses. The juridical linguistics is shown to cover a large number of aspects of relationship between the language and the law, touching upon both the law creativity and the law application process. The most demanded is noted to be a juridical linguistic expert activity, i.e. making linguistic expert examinations of regulation drafts and nonjuridical texts involved in the legal sphere etc. It is inferred that the text of the law should be clear and at the same time correct; it should reflect reality without distortions. High linguistic standards in the sphere of the legislation language are needed.
T.Yu. Panteleeva, M.P. Akhidzhakova
Aspects of linguistic systemness in legislative base as primary discourse space
The paper discusses grammatical interpretation of sense and content of a linguistic systemness in legislative base. Primary discourse space of sense and content of the law as a process of cognition is shown to be not “purely” language or “purely” logic, this process is language-logic. The basis of the legislative text is noted to be made of sign levels of language formed by language units or combinations of units, replacing or indicating the extra language essence. It has been established that the law, being a product of conscious and strong-willed activity, becomes open to knowledge and realization when it finds a language form.
Emotional functioning of articles in an advertising discourse
The paper discusses the emotional functioning of articles in the advertising discourse in the English and German languages. It is shown that the article can possess different extent of emotional allocation. It is inferred that the article is an important language means to express emotionality of different degree in an advertising discourse in the English and German languages.
Meaningful lack of an article: zero sign as a member of opposition of article forms
An analysis is made of the paradigm of article forms in the Romance and German group languages as a system of oppositions. Along with the morphologically expressed definite and indefinite article types the zero sign or a zero article is classified as the member of the indicated opposition. The author shows specificity of generalization through zero type of the article, which promotes perception of the concept as a symbol. The paradigm of an article is classified as the accent gradual equipollent opposition.
Syntactic concept in the aspect of a complicated sentence
This paper examines the variety of complications as a semantic and structural phenomenon in the syntax, which can reasonably be presented in the form of a model of syntactic concept of complicated sentence. It is noted that the meaning of the complementary predicativity can be expressed in the sentence with the help of homogeneous predicates, infinitive and insertion predicative constructions. It has been established that the specific character of the syntactic concept of complicated sentence is that it defines two (or more) units of information, expressing supporting and additional information, reported by a block diagram of simple sentence.
Paradigms of behavioural and speech distinctions of men and women in an art discourse
The paper discusses new data on processes of a categorization, interest to private human life and development of new theories of the personality in a linguistic genderology. The author shows the new scientific direction which has peculiar features of the new scientific discipline for which methods and techniques of research are developed. The new direction stimulated studying linguistic mechanisms of manifestation of a gender in language and communication. It is established that the gender can study mental and emotional characteristics of the man and female.
Structural and semantic peculiarities of word combinations in the English, Russian and Adyghe languages
The paper discusses the theoretical material aimed at perfection of lexical-semantic and morphological work in teaching foreign languages. The author characterizes the coinciding and distinguishing features of syntactic level of the English, Russian and Adyghe languages. The comparison of word combinations in three languages and the similarity and distinctions of their structural, semantic and functional features are given. It is inferred that the full coincidence of the notions is rarely observed.
Sđecific features of the French institutional discourse: parliament’s debates
The paper discusses the most prominent structural and functional characteristics of argumentative polemic discourse of parliamentary debates in the French National Assembly. The research has shown that parenthetical remarks often play a constructive systematizing role in shaping parliamentary discourse. The research has revealed that argumentation in parliamentary speech interactions is a process of adducing and refuting the reasons constituting the argumentative debate.
Transition of free verbal phrases into phraseologically bound forms
The paper deals with the transition of free phrases with prefixal verbs as the main component. The author examines the interaction of lexicon, word formation, morphology and syntax, as well as a role of component correlation in transition of free phrases into the phraseologically bound forms. It has been established that addition of separate prefixes to verbs of different lexical-semantic groups promotes transition of free combinations into phraseologically bound forms and emergence of the phenomena of transitivity and syncretism in the language at level of free phrases and phraseological units proper.
S.Kh. Yakhutl (Kumuk)
The functional status of bilingualism in modern linguistics
The paper conceives of the bilingualism as a version of multilingualism in modern linguistics. Classifications of its description by different linguists are examined. In spite of the fact that the bilingualism is represented from the different positions, all branches of knowledge recognize that there is a primary language system which is used for communication. Thus, a person has a different command of two languages because there are no two absolutely identical social spheres of action of the languages and structures presented by them.
Study of Arts
Landscape architecture in the organization of traffic streams in the city
This paper discusses the formation of transit transport and pedestrian space, convenient and comfortable for the person which is an integral part of the modern city. The author describes successful examples of design of such environment in the different countries and gives references of literary sources. Basing on the detailed analysis of examples of various street spaces the author shows that the landscape architecture plays a great role in the solution of the considered problem.
Retrospective analysis of the teaching of academic drawing, its current problems and trends
In the article formation and development of system of teaching of the academic drawing at the higher school is considered, beginning from its origin till now, its distinctive signs during the various historical periods are marked. It is shown as during functioning of system of teaching conditions for its transition in qualitatively new condition were prepared: the structure, element structure, its role in system of art preparation changed, there were new properties and qualities.
Composition creation in the conditions of a canon
The paper examines specificity of composer’s creativity intended for divine service. The author opposes the church creativity to the secular one, the service to catching the limelight and searches for the author’s style to likening the samples. Radical difference in two types of the creativity is shown to be related to the prime target which is seen by the author. As a result, the prime causes of the found distinctions are disclosed. Those are the differences in service goals of divine service singing and musical art.