The Bulletin of the Adyghe State University,<br />
the series "Philology and the Arts" The Bulletin of the Adyghe State University,
the series "Philology and the Arts"
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#3 / 2015


  • Anchek S.Kh.
    Some features of language of the Adyghe animal fairy tales

    This paper provides a description of the functional role of various language devices which are used in texts of the Adyghe animal fairy tales. The scientifcally important are various language (initial, intermediate and fnal) formulas which are found in the studied texts. The richness of language of the Adyghe animal fairy tales is shown through the used pointed language comparisons, metaphors, repetitions, onomatopoeic words, phraseological units, epithets, personifcations, hyperboles and irony which strengthen its stylistic color. It is established that along with the traditional language formulas common for fairy tales of the different peoples there are also the specifc ones, peculiar only to the Adyghe animal fairy tales. Practical value is seen in possibility of use of results of research in lecture courses on the Adyghe language and literature and in drawing up school and higher school textbooks on the Adyghe and Kabardino-Circassian languages.

    pdf 21-25.pdf  (279 Kb)

  • Bagaryan A.A.
    Metaphor in a business discourse: effect of infuence and attraction of attention

    An analysis is made of metaphorical models of representation of economic concepts in the English language. The structure of metaphorical constructions and their impact on audience are considered. New vision of metaphorical constructions in a business discourse is offered. Lingual semiotic functions of a metaphor are revealed and described. Metaphors are established to promote the best comprehension of the actual information by the recipient. The author confrms that the lingual semiotics of a metaphor of a business discourse is in unity of linguistic and semiotic components. Various types of metaphors are described. Methods of the contextual and comparative analysis are used. The author shows that the lingual semiotics of a metaphor is represented by system of the verbal signs used in economic texts to nominate and present the phenomena and subjects characteristic of the business sphere, description of economic events, attraction of readers’ attention, an assessment of actions of fnanciers and effective impact on public opinion. The scientifc and practical importance and relevance of this work are defned by its innovative character connected with the textual analysis of metaphorical revisiting the economic concepts. The presented analysis of metaphors makes a contribution to studying the language personality of a communicator and provides material for further generalizations and systematization of knowledge of coding and decoding of the text.

    pdf 26-30.pdf  (278 Kb)

  • Baranova A.Yu., Chetverikova O.V.
    Text-forming potential of the loose parts of the sentence

    The objective of this research is to reveal the text-forming opportunities of syntagmatically detached constructions by using an example of the analysis of the text fragments with sentences including loose appositions and attributes. It is inferred that their exit beyond a framework of the loose sentence is explained by that the loose parts become a peculiar reference point for the subsequent expansion of a thought. Scientifc novelty is related to a new approach which is offered to study a role of the loose parts of the sentence in creating the text. The descriptive method and a method of linguistic supervision for the analysis of contextual material are used. The practical consequence is that the results of research can be used in the analysis of a work of art and in the linguistic analysis of the text. The offered technique can be used in studying semantics of the sentence and the text- forming opportunities of loose parts of the sentence.

    pdf 31-38.pdf  (351 Kb)

  • Bedanokova Z.K.
    The phenomenon of evocativeness: in search of defnition

    This paper focuses upon defning a phenomenon of evocativeness in the language and speech as a genre-forming category. The creation mechanism of additional meaning, which contaminates the frst («literal») sense, by using a certain language form, is discussed. Oppositions of different degree of expression are discovered: the implicitness –explicitness; the occasionality – conventionality; the intentionality – spontaneity and others. An analysis is made of the correlation of evocativeness with such linguistic categories as a modality, the propositional relation, implicitness, implication, a presupposition, a connotation, polysemy, paradox, etc. The cognitive semiotic method allows detection of profound mechanisms of emergence of implicit meaning. The scientifc and practical importance and novelty of this work is defned by correlation of the evocativeness and implicit content of a language sign as a mechanism of the evocative speech act – an evocation. Relevance of research is based on the analysis of advertising as one of the main evocative genres since the evocativeness in advertising is displayed as the instrument of realization of many functional meanings. The conclusion is drawn that the phenomenon of evocativeness has the marginal status in relation to language system, but takes important place in speech usage, realizes homo ludens and creative functions of language and becomes a genre-forming category.

    pdf 39-48.pdf  (328 Kb)

  • Zhuk E.E.
    Realia and methods of their transfer in adaptation of foreign texts

    This paper describes the notion of realia as lexis with national-cultural semantics, characteristic only of one nation. The examples are given from the works of English and American authors. It’s been found out that there are realia in all spheres of people’s lives. They may be objects of material and spiritual culture, proper names and geographical names. We raise a problem of realia as a class of non-equivalent words having no correspondence in other languages. Variants of translation of realia from foreign languages are described. We speak about several basic mechanisms of translation of realia from English into Russian during adaptation of a foreign text, namely: transcription, transliteration, calque, functional change and description. These methods are defned and illustrated by the examples from the works of O.Henry and P.G.Wodehouse. We’ve come to a conclusion that realia and their translation from one language into another is one of the most diffcult moments in adaptation of foreign texts.

    pdf 49-53.pdf  (294 Kb)

  • Ishchenko D.S.
    Ontological meaning of a word and its representation through image-concept, «rhetorical speech» and concept

    The paper deals with the problem of ontological language resources and the evolution of views on existential language. The purpose of this study is to determine the ontological opportunities of Russian words. This is related to attention to the problems of national self-awareness and self-expression, and acquires special importance in the context of globaliza- tion and the crisis of the old system of values of the socio-cultural, ethnic and cultural plan. To achieve the goal we propose to review the concept of speech from the perspective of «en- ergetic ontology», emphasizing the constant volatility of the word, and the ability to build new meanings and ontological values. The paper also examines the polar point of view: the verbal representation of value through the image-concept or «rhetorical word» that operate ready repertoire of meanings and deprive the word of life and linguistic ontology. In the course of study, in order to organize the theoretical material, the descriptive, comparative, cultural and historical methods of scientifc knowledge were used, which made it possible to trace the flling of words with new meanings and identify the semes constituting the ontolog- ical meaning. As a result, it has been found that the ability to fll the word with new meanings produces a tendency to form concepts representing the content of word sign. The fndings are of particular interest to such areas of linguistics, as a cultural linguistics, ethnolinguistics, cognitive linguistics, as well as for the development of the problem of journalistic discourse in the range of cultural and national understanding.

    pdf 54-59.pdf  (282 Kb)

  • Pelipenko L.M.
    Cognitive representation of numerative idioms with the components one, two and three in the English and Russian languages

    This paper provides the results of idiom analysis with the components - numerals one, two and three in the English and Russian languages. From the functional point of view, multifunctionality is peculiar to all these numerals. In research of these idioms, the lingual cultural science techniques, the component and contextual methods, a comparative method, and the conceptology techniques are used. This research is theoretically and practically important because it provides replenishment and systematization of data on idioms with a numerical component, defnes the main components of the culture metalanguage of the studied material, interprets a national markedness of images of the studied idioms containing the numerical components one, two and three, as well as tracks their refection in language pictures of the world of British and Russians. Numerals one, two, and three, perceived as the frst elements of a numerical row, have rich associative characteristics in both languages. The crucial role in development of their polysemy belongs to semantics of number.

    pdf 60-64.pdf  (314 Kb)

  • Sarayeva K.I.
    Emotional and action codes of the announcement of a work of art (from materials of English, French and Russian languages)

    This research focuses upon identifcation of the codes corresponding to the designated motives. Considering the term «code» in its ordinary meaning, in the meaning accepted in philological sciences and the theory of communication, as well as in the theory of the text, we give a defnition of a code for the secondary text of the «announcement» type. Two main codes are described; they are used by addressees of the text to interpret the received messages which help them «to flter» the works corresponding to their motives. The content analysis is made to allocate lexical and syntactic units from the announcement case by using the method of casual selection. By means of these units, the sender of the text codes the information important for the recipient. The obtained results are of practical importance as they can be used by authors of announcements, copywriters and editors, as well as for reading special courses and holding special seminars. It is established that applying either one or other code to variety of texts of announcements and «fltering» them, the recipient of the text can orient himself and choose the better work of art which is most fully meeting his expectations: whether his motives of reading being aimed at receiving emotional experience or at learning an outcome of an interesting plot.

    pdf 65-70.pdf  (317 Kb)

  • Tikhonova A.P.
    Ways and means of expressing space relations in the Hattian and Abkhaz-Adyghe languages

    Comparison of Hattian and Abkhaz-Adyghe ways and means of expressing space relations, which is the aim of the article, made it possible to prove close relationship of the mentioned languages on the morphological and word-building levels. The methodology of investigation is based on the cognitive approach to linguistic phenomenon and on the comparative investigation on two or more languages from historical point of view. Kin words or their components were investigated if their graphic representation and meaning registered in Hattian and Hittite Bilingua and in dictionaries of Modern Abkhaz and Adyghe languages and their dialects. The Hattian affxes and root elements revealed by the author are used to denote place and direction and have counterparts in the Abkhaz-Adyghe languages. Attempt was made to prove that to restore logic structure of ancient words it is possible to turn to the material of modern kin languages. The results of the analysis made it possible to refer a word with spatial meaning to a certain lexico-grammatical class and to translate the words that were interpreted in two ways by different authors or were considered untranslatable. The results of the investigation may be used for deciphering ancient texts.

    pdf 71-77.pdf  (341 Kb)

  • Frolova O.A.
    The role of electronic editions in replenishment of the Russian language by loan words

    The paper examines loan words in the language of electronic mass media. The paper shows that the problem of the borrowing of foreign words is relevant. A proposition is made that the intensity of the process of borrowing is very high. The goal of the research is to establish whether or not network editions help recent borrowings to penetrate into Russian. The author analyzes loan words used in the texts of electronic media and shows the spheres of this use. The component method was used to identify that most frequent and numerous are groups of modern foreign words, which relate to spheres such as «economy and fnance», «sport», «tourism», «computer technology and equipment», «art» and «fashion industry». The conclusion is drawn that effciency of network editions promotes speedy penetration of loan words into Russian. It is inferred that foreign words are mostly words of English origin. New loan words are included strongly into our speech and expand lexical system of modern Russian that causes both the theoretical and practical importance of independent word creation.

    pdf 78-83.pdf  (301 Kb)

  • Khazhokova E.A.
    The semantic and functional characteristic of pragmatonyms in the fction text (from material of the novel of Mark Levi «La premi&#232;re nuit»)

    This research focuses upon the study of pragmatonyms relating to literary onomastics. The objective of this research is to consider functioning of the Russian pragmatonyms in prose of the French modern writer Mark Levi. The methods used are supervision and generalization of linguistic material allowing us to trace features of the use of the Russian pragmatonyms in the French fction text. The conclusions containing in this paper can be used for further studying functioning of pragmatonyms in cross-cultural communication. The Russian pragmatonyms included in the text of the considered work, in interaction with other components, play an important role in understanding the artistic concept of the writer. They promote realization of the communicative attitude to render impact on the reader and carry out nominative, pragmatic, information, stylistic, expressional and emotional functions.

    pdf 84-87.pdf  (303 Kb)

  • Shkhapatseva M.Kh., Pazova L.M.
    Antonyms, antonymy and antonymic paradigmatics in Russian

    The paper discloses the depth and multiaspectness of antonyms, antonymy and antonymic paradigmatics as a phenomenon of Russian lexicon and sheds new light on theoretical provisions of these semasiological concepts. Examples are drawn from V.S. Vysotsky’s poetry. Antonyms are shown to be one of the system-forming units of Russian. The statistical method was used to analyze the concepts «antonyms», «antonymy» and «antonymic paradigmatics». This method is very productive since it allowed us to subject the studied material to the comprehensive analysis. Results of the conducted research give a complete idea of structural-semantic features of antonyms and can be used for their further studying both in Russian and in other languages. The theoretical provisions considered in the paper are supported by the factual material. It is inferred that the analyzed concepts have no unambiguous solution in Russian modern linguistic science and need further specifcation. The practical importance lies in that the analysis of this linguistic material allows us to develop a technique of its studying in initial and middle classes of school. In V.S. Vysotsky’s poetry there are a lot of language and individual author’s antonyms.

    pdf 88-94.pdf  (308 Kb)

    Literary Criticism

  • Beshukova F.B., Khatkova I.N.
    Romantic poetics and historical concept of the novel «The Ice House» by I.I. Lazhechnikov

    The paper focuses upon designating some features of work «The Ice House» by I.I.Lazhechnikov in the context of typology of the historical novel of Walter Scott. This promotes the defnition of a place and signifcance of this novel in art space of the Russian historical fction of the frst half of the 19th century. This work examines the confict originality, the free and entertaining organization of a plot outline, features of system of images and a role of fctional characters from the point of view of specifcs of the indicated genre. Creation of a certain local color is noted to be an important component in system of the historical novel of Lazhechnikov. The writer managed to authentically transfer not only customs and life, prejudices and delusions of the past, but also to embody the image and spirit of an era and to create peculiar characters of historical persons. The dramatic nature and logic of events, natural discrepancy of images along with love stories move a romantic intrigue. The historical, literary, comparative and typological methods of research, as well as a method of the analysis of the fction text are used. The scientifc and practical importance and relevance of this work are defned by its innovative character related to the textual and typological analysis of the novel. Such an analysis of work makes a certain contribution to comparative and typological literary criticism. The specifc analysis of the text is used to demonstrate the declared theoretical provisions. The conclusion is drawn that the novel «Ice House» represents the architectural - romantic historical novel.

    pdf 95-100.pdf  (300 Kb)

  • Zhachemuk Z.R.
    Satirical and comic aspects of stories by Kh.A. Ashinov

    This paper discusses the features of «small prose» of Kh. Ashinov. Special attention is paid to stories in genres of satire and humor. The emphasis is placed on the textual analysis of works in the original language. The objects of research are stories of different years which display the art originality of satire and humor. Much attention is paid, frst of all, to human relationship and contemporaries. Features of author’s psychologism and lyrical judgment of reality are analyzed; interaction of satire and humor, old and new, past and present and their interrelation in the writer’s prose are noted. Methods of genre - stylistic, comparative –typological and textual research are used to investigate works of art of satire and humor in the Adyghe literature. The scientifc and practical importance and relevance of this work are defned by its innovative character related to the textual analysis of the poor-studied works of Kh.Ashinov.

    pdf 101-104.pdf  (269 Kb)

  • Panesh U.M., Siyukhov S.N., Kazanova I.I.
    E. Hemingway and A. Evtykh: typological relationships

    The paper focuses upon the analysis of typological relationships between works of the 20th century writers E. Hemingway and A. Evtykh. The objective of the presented work is to study crisis of traditional humanitarian values and to describe feeling of loss and formation of new art - esthetic thinking in works of the above-named writers. The revealed similar lines of creativity are displayed in the strengthening the concept of the personality and art problematical character caused by revision of naive historicism that has an impact on the solution of hot topics: public world and personality, personality and family, personality and national values, personality and moral choice. The authors of the present paper defne and shape identical creative searches caused by ideological and moral views and connected with familiarizing with a new poetic form: intense knowledge of the world, drama introspection and special lyrical tonality. Conclusions are drawn on a fgurative form of the compared writers, including strengthening the subjective and narrative line of the story and frequent alteration of the plan of a statement. Special attention is paid to complication of the psychological analysis due to use of represented speech, internal monologue, an art detail, a dialogue, and an unusual emotional contact with the reader formed on the basis of implication. The conclusion is drawn that features of the era of the 20th century leave the mark on works of the writers representing different national literatures and defne the typologically similar art lines.

    pdf 105-111.pdf  (308 Kb)


  • Paranuk K.N.
    Nart’s plots and motives in the North Caucasian modern novel myth by M. Bulkaty and D. Koshubayev

    This paper studies the relevant and poor-studied problem of a neomythologism of modern literary process basing on material of North Caucasian literature. Research is made to explore artistic features of the North Caucasian modern novel myth appealing to the Nartiada mythic epic legends. The aim of this work is to shed the new light on nature of development of mythic epic tradition. To disclose this, the following objectives are solved: detection of artistic features of a mythologism of novels myths of M. Bulkaty “The Seventh Campaign of Soslan Narty” and «Abrag» by D. Koshubayev; the analysis of the functional importance of mythic epic material in the subject-matter and structure of novels myths, features of problems, plot-outline creation, image creation, and world modeling. In order to study a problem of a neomythologism in the North Caucasian novel, we used both a comparative and typological methods and achievements of psychoanalytic, structural and semiotic approaches. It is inferred that the character of myth creation by North Caucasian modern writers corresponds to the main tendencies of the world literature and can be defned as the neomythologism which is expressed both in a remythologization and demythologization. This research is theoretically important because it identifes genre features of the North Caucasian modern novel myth and specifc components of this genre modifcation. The practical importance lies in that it is possible to use the results of this research in higher school teaching, in special courses on history of the North Caucasian literature and on a genre of the North Caucasian novel myth.

    pdf 112-118.pdf  (305 Kb)


  • Beshukova F.B., Khazhgeriyeva A.A.
    Brands of Adyghea in modern media space as the indicator of sociocultural and economic attractiveness of the region

    The paper discusses the effciency of regional branding in the course of formation of positive image of the region. Taking an example of well-known ethnotourist offers of Adyghea, the brand is positioned as a factor of development of competitive advantages of the region and an asset of regional economy. The research is aimed at identifying a role of a brand in development of effective regional economic policy. The space of regional tourist brands is examined in mass-media aspect on the basis of the content analysis. Conclusions about importance of effective regional branding bring us to need to support this direction of regional development of mass media by the administration of the region. The practical importance of research lies in processing ways of optimization of further development of advertising in the Adyghea Republic.

    pdf 119-124.pdf  (297 Kb)

  • Mirumyan A.G.
    Social networks in system of mass communication

    The paper deals with social networks in system of mass communication. The subjects of research are social networks which are of great interest in audience today. The work discusses their functions and gives the comparative analysis of three networks, popular in Russia. The objective of this paper is to examine them in system of mass communication and to define their significance and the role they play. The analysis and comparison methods are used. Special attention is paid to that that social networks stopped being only entertaining or connecting people from around the world, today they act as the successful tool in the world of advertising and PR. Also they are a new mass medium. In this we see relevance, the scientific and practical importance of this research. The conclusion is drawn that social networks become more demanded every year, attracting people of the highest social level and status in ranks of their users.

    pdf 125-129.pdf  (272 Kb)


  • Suprun V.I.
    The Treasury of Names of Peoples of the North Caucasus

    pdf 179-183.pdf  (264 Kb)

    Study of Arts

  • Dzliyeva D.M.
    Some aspects of traditional choreography of the Turkish Ossetians

    The paper examines the case of national dances of the Turkish Ossetians and compares them with the musical and choreographic tradition occurring in the territory of North and South Ossetia. Four Ossetian dances that are performed by the Turkish Ossetians are allocated. The aim of this paper is to trace safety of tradition in culture of the Ossetian diaspora in Turkey, as well as to reveal lines of the different ethnic influences (mainly from the Circassian culture). The musical and choreographic component of traditional culture of the Turkish Ossetians with the detailed description of plasticity of hands, a characteristic step and ornamental features of dances is described for the first time. The scientific and practical importance of this paper is that this publication addresses the poor-studied culture developing throughout two centuries at a long distance from the historical homeland. The methodology of research is connected with the use of an integrated approach in the analysis of musical choreographic culture of the Turkish Ossetians, and comparative, typological and comparative-historical methods. Historical processes of the dynamics of development of national choreography of the Turkish Ossetians show that at high safety of language and etiquette, the musical and choreographic component of traditional culture undergoes the greatest transformation. Partly it can be caused by total absence of ceremonial practices and traditional religious system of the Ossetians. On the other hand, according to Moslem doctrine, to play instruments and to dance is a great sin.

    pdf 130-135.pdf  (337 Kb)

  • Miroshkina A.F.
    The war and «3 colors of a lifetime» (about I. Talankin’s movies with A. Schnittke’s music)

    The paper deals with a kind of «war trilogy» directed by I. Talankin with the music of following movies: «Entry», «Daytime Stars» and «Star Fall». The work identifies the basic principles how the director and the composer reveal deeply moral issues in the context of war and peace. For the first time on the basis of archival materials and unexplored partitions the composer’s method of work in the movie is cleared up: the principles of monothematicism, the system of leitmotifs (leit-theme of war, fate, hope, dreams and farewell), the ratio of music in shot and behind-the-scenes and conjugations of different styles in partitions. During the analysis of movies and partitions their genre and stylistic features and the peculiarities of composition solutions are revealed. The methods and techniques of the composer developing deep psychological problems, implied realities, symphonic pairings of sharply contrasting musical images are highlighted. The importance of lyrical-psychological and tragic spheres of music for Talankin’s movies is emphasized. It was found out that music of Schnittke in the Talankin’s movies is always meaningful; it gives additional information, reveals deep psychological motives and complex emotional feelings of the characters. The work of Alfred Schnittke in the cinema is shown to be important for the formation of polystylistic writing method, peculiar to master, as well as testing of many imaginative, timbre and harmonic solutions being implemented into the major academic genres (for example, «Faustian theme»).

    pdf 136-141.pdf  (304 Kb)

  • Mitus I.V., Edidzhi V.V.
    The Sindika ensemble of the Caucasian dance: on a reinterpretation of classical (canonical) samples

    The paper explores the reinterpretation processes in activity of the Sindika ensemble of the Caucasian dance. The goal of this paper is to define signs of the reinterpretation processes in choreographic compositions of this ensemble. This work is important in terms of practice, which includes display of activities of ensemble on a reinterpretation of the Caucasian dance in line with universal traditions, display of identity of activity of the Ashchemez folk ensemble in a reconstruction of man’s tradition of national singing, as well as examination of structure of creative integration of collective bodies as a new form of mass culture, relying of processes of its formation on activity of professionals, synthesis of classical canons and elements of a modernist style; questions of use of classical music in genres and forms of mass culture and a correlation of the canonic and updated material in choreographic art. This research is important from the theoretical point of view because it uses a culturological approach to study choreographic compositions of the Sindika ensemble as a new stage of development of choreographic art in Adyghea and manifestation of cultural tolerance in the multiethnic region. Authors are basing on genetic approach, considering emergence and development of the reinterpretation processes in Sindika compositions and on the structural functional approach allowing isolation of all structural elements of these processes and their interrelations. The following features are characteristic of the Caucasian dance during the last decades: renovation of forms of existence, synthesis of classical dance and folk choreography in the contents of Sindika concert choreographic compositions, relying of various dancing genres on ethnic material of the people of the North Caucasus (Abkhazian, Chechen, etc.) and European (Spanish); and updating forms of the existing – mainly concert –Sindika and Ashchemez man’s folk ensemble. This work is scientifically important because it defines the common features and discrepancies between primary sources and a reinterpretation artefact in choreographic art.

    pdf 142-148.pdf  (311 Kb)

  • Sokolova A.N.
    Nartiada in the context of modern culture of the region

    The paper examines the functioning of the Nart epic heritage of the people of the Caucasus in modern culture of the region. The sociocultural interpretation of the concept «Nartiada» is given. This concept defines various social practices related in one or another way to the Nart legends in their primitive oral and variable forms. The main objective of the paper is to show ways and to disclose mechanisms of saving the Nart epos in cultural memory of the Caucasian ethnoses and in social practice of the region. On the basis of the numerous examples obtained in the course of long supervision over development of ethnocultures in the North Caucasus, conclusions are drawn about special property of the historical memory which kept a lot of Nart plots and heroes in mass consciousness. Mechanisms and forms of preservation of Nartiada are the onomasticon and toponymics, an essential and large artistic esthetic cluster (fine arts, arts and crafts, instrumental music, choreographic music, literature, poetry, etc.), educational, cultural and mass forms, as well as forms of scientific, methodical, organizational and scientific promotional work. The Nart epos continues to exist in cultural space of the region both in authentic, i.e. natural ontological version, and in the form of the aimed process regulated by the power. The importance of the conducted research is defined by identification of the relationships hidden between the authentic and modern cultural practices promoting Nartiada’s future both as a folklore product and the sociocultural Nartiada.

    pdf 149-156.pdf  (331 Kb)

  • Sychenko G.B.
    Shaman musical poetical text: on definition and the essence

    The paper is devoted to a definition of the shamanic text category, which is, in the author’s opinion, one of the key components of the “intonation – text” dichotomy, relevant for shamanic cultures. The aim of the work is to define the specificity of shamanic text, to reveal its essential features and then to interpret them. The scientific importance of work lies in theoretical clearing-up the specified category. The practical value is in its use for interpretation of complex and obscure ritual texts. Any element of such text can express a large number of information containing beyond its limits which is displayed only if needed. It allows us to explain the seeming incoherent character, closeness and opacity of the contents of shaman texts. The text is stipulated by the ceremony course, nature of ceremonial communication and a psychophysical condition of the expert who is carrying out the ritual (a so-called shaman trance or ecstasy). This determines its saturation by elements-exclamations, interjections, onomatopoeias, ritual words and magic formulas, as well as its specific composition. As a result of the conducted research it is established that the main sign of shaman texts is high degree of their implicity, i.e. a non-manifestation and a concealment of meanings. In addition, the distinctive intrinsic characteristic of two main genres of shaman tradition is revealed: a chant is defined as “folded” and the shaman’s ritual as the “unfolded” shaman text. These results are of practical value for the researchers who are engaged in studying musical and ritual traditions.

    pdf 157-161.pdf  (315 Kb)

  • Khvatova S.I.
    Spiritual searches in art and artistic life in the second half of the 20th century

    The paper explores the dynamics of spiritual revival in national art of the Soviet Russia and the Orthodox believers abroad. The purpose of this study is to identify the leading tendency of development of national art in the second half of the 20th century – spiritual religious «becoming sober». Special attention is paid to a culturological context of updating the subject of literary and art works – music, cinema and painting. This research systematizes works from a position of accumulation of spiritual potential and specific display of «will to sacral». The author investigates the process of gradual return of the creative intellectuals to problems of spirituality and a religious subject, and the quantitative accumulation which led to some kind of «break» to religious subject in the course of celebration of the 1000 anniversary of the Rus’ Christianization. The analysis is based on historical and sociological methods of research with attraction of special art criticism tools. It is established that defining for spiritual searches in the sphere of creativity during the second half of the 20th century was as follows: a repeatedly changing political situation and expectation of changes in the period of Khruschev’s «thaw» and Brezhnev’s «stagnation», cardinal transformations of the late 1980s – the beginning of the 1990s occurring in the course of “perestroika”; crash of communistic idea and absence of new idea, which induced ideologists, politicians, the scientific and creative intellectuals to its search, formulation and justification; reflection of a history – the recent and remote past and the present, proceeding within a historical subject and with the use of an artistic technique of documentation; symbolical marked dates (the 1000 anniversary of the Rus’ Christianization and the 200 anniversary of Patriotic War of 1812); and return to life of the culture layers forbidden or lost relevance in the recent past. This paper designates ways of research of the art forms related to canonic liturgical texts and actions, which is of great theoretical value.

    pdf 162-169.pdf  (317 Kb)

  • Shak F.M.
    Soviet jazz as phenomenon of mass culture

    This paper deals with the processes of style content and sociocultural existence of the national jazz. The purpose of work is to demonstrate a number of the substantial differences between the Soviet and western jazz, in particular, to identify belonging of the first to the easier variety music. The author underlines that the Soviet jazz has a special style color, penetrated by variety connotations and freely identified not only by skilled experts, but also by musicians of the younger generation. Special consideration receives the judgment stated by the American musicologist F. Tirro that separate style versions of the modern western jazz and especially a post-bop style belong to processes of neoclassicism. Internal logic of development of post-bop improvisations, their structural complexity and focus on creative reconsideration of gains of the 1940 – 1950 jazz allows us to claim that with the emergence of this style, jazz music has acquired the new, higher level of the esthetic organization. In spite of the fact that in the Soviet jazz there were many artistically significant projects, and its style coverage stretched from fusion music to the vanguard non-idiomatic improvisations, the genre lacked the basis so typical for the American scene based on many-year traditions and esthetic searches. Theoretical value of the paper lies in detection of variety specifics of the Soviet jazz. In the author’s opinion, the synergy of jazz practices with popular music helped the considered genre to reject the sum of «bourgeois» connotations and receive legitimation in official culture of the USSR.

    pdf 170-178.pdf  (332 Kb)