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#3 / 2016
Phrase-syntactic schemes with a basic component – not full-content word: structural and functional aspects
For the first time, structural and functional aspects of phrase schemes with a basic component – not full-content word – are examined through the prism of a «language and the speech» scientific paradigm, typical for the theory of language. Such an approach helps the author to reveal and systematize phrase schemes with the basic component expressed by an interjection, a preposition, a particle and the conjunction as a part of single group. The theoretical importance of this study lies in expansion and deepening ideas of syntactic phraseological units in modern Russian, their place in system of language and features of their functioning in the speech, in providing a methodological basis for their further theoretical studying, and for a phrase graphic coding on material of both Russian and other languages. Scientific novelty lies in the multiaspectual description of phrase schemes of this group that allowed the author to reveal specific types of meanings of such phrase syntactic schemes and to define their efficiency; to establish models of creation of each phrase scheme and to note their specifics; to parameterize obligatory unchangeable and changeable components, as well as facultative components of syntactic structure of each phrase scheme; to establish degree of relevance of an internal form of basic components, and the syntactic relations between obligatory components; to study syntagmatic properties of phrase schemes in terms of distribution and compatibility; and to prove the phraseological nature of phrase schemes of this group.
Proverb language typology in the literary works of I. Mashbash and S. Panesh (based on «Bzyiko Zau» and «Mykyzhyn gu uag»)
This study examines the proverbs to identify the different artistic and pictorial means and methods: similes, metaphors and antitheses. We describe such types of repetition as the phonetic, morphological, lexical, etc., which enhance the expressive possibilities of language. We explore the proverbs, which function in literary texts in the form in which they appear in the speech of speaking the Adyghe language. In some cases, introducing proverbs in the text of a literary work, writers perform this creatively and, in accordance with the author’s thought, restructure them, maintaining the integrity of the core semantic content of proverbs. Results of the analysis show that paraphrased proverbs can later be widely distributed in the language and in speech, becoming an important part of the Adyghe literature.
Arabisms in the borrowed vocabulary of the Nogai language
A study of the Arab borrowings in the Nogai language and their lexical-semantic features, undoubtedly, is among the topical not only of historical lexicology, but also of the current state of the lexical system of the language. The goal of this study is to identify Arabisms in the Nogai contemporary language, to make their comprehensive, system-integrated description, and to determine their belonging to a particular lexical-semantic category. The scientific novelty and practical significance lie in the definition of etymology and in detailed coverage of semantic processes characteristic of orientalisms (Arabisms) in the Nogai literary language and its dialects. In this study, the descriptive method is mainly used with comparative-character applications to closely related languages. Attempts to clarify the etymology of a number of lexical units required also the use of comparative historical analysis. It has been established that Arabisms in the Nogai language make certain parallels with the same borrowings in other North Caucasus and Daghestan languages, forming the unified isoglosses, but they differ in some cases in the phonetic, semantic and grammatical aspects. The ancient borrowings from Arabic, being firmly entrenched in the lexical system and enriching it, are widely used both in everyday speech, and in the book styles of the literary forms of the Nogai contemporary language.
Baranova A.Yu., Chetverikova O.V.
Fiction text as a basis of modeling of the author’s consciousness of the creative language person
The paper shows the bases for modeling of the author’s art consciousness within an anthropocentric paradigm of a research of language and thinking relationship. The author’s art consciousness represents a set of cognitive, emotive, communicative and semiotic subsystems entering a concept system of the literary master as the creative language person of the elite type. The publication explores how the semantic sphere of the personality interrelates with the «authorship signs»of the writer allowing us to get access to the informative and semantic sphere of the personality for the research purposes. It is proved that the fiction text is result of cognitive activity of the author as holistic emotive – informative-figurative communicative system reflecting the author’s point of view on the world and the person in esthetic speech activity by means of language signs. The conclusion is drawn that author’s art consciousness as the model reconstructed on the basis of the analysis of texts of the creative person, represents a set of the cognitive, emotive, communicative and semiotic subsystems of concept sphere of the author which are in the relations of interrelation and interconditionality with the semantic sphere of the writer. Relevance lies in identification of the preconditions substantiating modeling of author’s art consciousness on the basis of interpretation of set of the texts created by the language person. Scientific novelty of work and the practical importance are defined by integration of provisions of cognitive linguistics, psycholinguistics, literary criticism, linguistic disciplines, psychology of the personality, and cultural linguistics that allow us to consider the fiction text as the model of the world of the author reflecting specifics of the semantic sphere of the literary master, his value orientations through language signs.
Lexical features of the Turkish political discourse of an oral public speech
The paper deals with the linguistic features of the Turkish political discourse of an oral public sopeech. Oral public statements of Turkish modern political leaders served as material for the analysis. A research objective was detection of linguistic features of the Turkish political discourse of the oral speech. The conclusion is drawn that one of the features of the political discourse of the oral public speech is rendering impact on the addressee. The pragmatical component plays the special role consisting in purposeful selection of the language means promoting to make impact. At such selection, features of audience are considered. Particular interest in lexical features of the Turkish political discourse of the oral public speech is related to the role which they play in professional activity of the politician.
Various language means of the political discourse of the oral public speech of the politician provide a full-fledged picture about richness, complexity and degree of figurativeness of the political discourse. Idioms and modizms facilitate perception of an oral public speech. Elements of informal conversation in the oral public speech are used for the negative characteristic of political rivals. Existence of pareomias and tropes makes the speech of the politician more vivid, presentable and bright that promotes realization of communicative tasks.
Kovalchuk N.V., Klemenova E.N.
Rhetorical relations as means of cohering segments of the text of an informal interview
The research is devoted to identifying the specifics of the category of cohesion of informal interview. The paper embraces the relationship between language elements in the interlocutors’ speech current and coordinates the speech actions based on socio-cultural communicative situation. For the first time it has been found that the process of communication between the interviewer and the respondent proceeds in a special way by configuring their speech actions in accordance with the current sociocultural situation. In this paper, the following conclusions were made: (1) A respondent, taking the function of the addressee, implements various sometimes incompatible images. (2) The interviewer, constantly switching from one respondent’s image to another, correspondently modifies his current stimulant actions which, maintaining the previous replicas cohesion, are characterized by appropriateness to the image the respondent has taken at the present moment. (3) Rhetorical structure analysis of the dialogic text of non-formal interview presupposes that this kind of text is functional and hierarchal integrity. (4) The interviewer and respondent’s spontaneous conversation, aimed at particular non-linguistic tasks, reveals the functional component. (5) Hierarchal text organization is in this case less distinct since the interlocutors spontaneously plan their speech tasks and can not predict each other’s reactions on the stimuli expressed.
Kubashicheva S.K., Chitao L.R.
Neologisms as form of representation of a modern language picture
Specifics, degree of efficiency and functioning of neologisms in the languages with different systems are investigated. Comparative studying of languages in cognitive and communicative aspects is one of the topical problems of modern linguistic science. The similar tendency gives the chance to analyze and classify in detail the key extralinguistic parameters within which language evolves. It makes a certain contribution to studying of non-cognate languages in the theoretical and practical plan. In this regard the descriptive method of the analysis of the new nominations in modern language space is very productive. Here of special interest are the neologisms associated with the global sphere «Person and Society». Tendencies of formation and metaphorization of neologisms of non-cognate languages are established. Material of research expands idea of semantic system of both languages and stimulates further researches in this area.
Term-derivative units in fiction works by M. Sholokhov
This work deals with the main features of term-derivative units implied in fiction works by M. Sholokhov. The paper aims at distinguishing structure-semantic, expressive and ethnolinguistic features of term-derivative units in the analyzed material. The practical significance of work is defined by the involved method of analysis of the words and word combinations in Sholokhov’s texts that can be implied for the study of the specificity of the given units in fiction works by other national and foreign authors. The scientific novelty lies in the comprehensive study of functioning of term-derivative units in the language of the Don writer. The basic methods of the research are the descriptive method, method of component analysis, and method of contextual analysis. For classification of term-derivative units, functioning in M. Sholokhov’s fiction works as one of the most significant sources of expressiveness, the following criteria are meaningful: ideographic, formal, and territorial. Analysis of the given units according to the above mentioned criteria not only reveals its language peculiarities, but also allows optimization of further comprehensive study of the given words and word combinations. In addition, the research of the peculiarities of term-derivative unit implication of the definite thematic groups in M.Sholokhov’s fiction works, devoted to the Don Cossacks, enables us to define them as ethnocultural markers.
On an alternative and invariant structure of language system
The question of language variability is one of the most tough, topical and many-sided in modern linguistics. The subjects of the research are variants and invariants as main components of language system. Studying of variability of language units is an interdisciplinary problem of linguistic and social research. In our opinion, extra linguistic and actually linguistic factors of development and functioning of language are not bound anywhere so closely, as in questions of a variation of its structural units. Variability of language units convincingly proves that language system is generally consists of variants and invariants. The same language unit can function and functions in language in the form of many variants, but simultaneously it remains itself, keeping invariable properties. Just the existence of language unit in a specific time is its variation, i.e. coexistence of a great number of its variants. It is possible to claim that variant is the form of real life of each specific language unit. The practical and scientific significance of the work is in the fact that the materials and results of this work can be used for further development of the theory of variability, and for specification of understanding of terms “variant” and “invariant”. Further research of the theory of variability will become a certain contribution to comparative - typological and general linguistics.
The German prepositions and their functional analogs in Karachay - Balkar language (from material of German and Karachay - Balkar languages)
The main purpose of this article is to study and identify common and distinctive structural, semantic and grammatical characteristics of German prepositions and Karachay-Balkar postpositions. The following problems are posed in accordance with the present work: to disclose: (a) syntax; (b) the functional features of prepositions and postpositions, and on this basis to identify the similarities and the difference of studied phenomena in the compared languages; and work out the basic principles of successful learning this material (visibility, comparative analysis of the rules of the native language and German, etc.). Based on the analysis of meanings of the considered prepositions and on their comparison with analogs of the Karachai-Balkar language we arrived at the following conclusions: the meanings of German prepositions can be transferred to the Karachay-Balkar language by using corresponding postpositions and other means expressing functional compliance of the considered meaning of certain preposition.
Personal-pronominal prefixes in the Hattian and Abkhaz-Adyghe languages: a comparative aspect
For the first time an attempt is made to single out personal-pronominal prefixes and describe their functions in the Hattian verbs and nouns by comparing them with personal-pronominal prefixes in the Abkhaz-Adyghe languages. When selecting prefixes we took into consideration legitimate sound correspondences of vowels and also consonants in the Hattian and Abkhaz-Adyghe languages: voiced – voiceless, palatal – hard, etc. Hattian words are given in Latin, their Abkhaz-Adyghe match – in the Cyrillic alphabet. The materials of the study were bilingual texts about «The God of Moon Fallen from the Heaven» and «A Building Ritual». The method of research is based on the comparative analysis of two or more languages from historical point of view. The analysis of the Hattian personal-pronominal prefixes in the texts belonging chronologically to different time and their comparison with Abkhaz-Adyghe personal-pronominal prefixes made it possible to reveal: 1) the transition from class to personal conjugation of the verbs in the Hattian language; 2) the appearance of possessive prefixes on the basis of class indicators. However, the correspondence of one and the same personal-pronominal prefix to several persons in the singular and plural numbers indicates that this process hadn’t been completed. Nevertheless, in spite of a long time gap between the Hattian and Abkhaz-Adyghe languages, the number of personal-pronominal matches in the languages is quite great, which confirms their relationship. The results of the investigation may be used for deciphering ancient texts.
Khachmafova Z.R., Shiryaeva O.V.
Convergence of scientific and publicistic discourses (from material of the 2000-2010 Russian business press)
The paper analyzes the phenomenon of convergence of various discourse styles in the modern communication. Convergence of a scientific discourse and information - analytical media discourse is examined using the material of the 2000-2010 Russian business press as an example. Research material is taken from the business publications «Kommersant», “Vedomosti”, «Expert», “RBC Daily”, «Dengi», «A secret of firm», «D’», «Economy and life». The characteristic features of academic writing lexicon used by journalists-analysts are: (1) abstract names; (2) terms; and (3) nominalized structures. Meanings of abstract names participate in a world categorization by logical knowledge therefore the preference of abstract lexicon signals about procedures of analytical and synthetic structuring of knowledge of the world. The term as a kind of lexicon belongs to language means of the exact and objective description of the world interpreted in the concept sphere of specialized knowledge. Nominalized structures represent meanings through abstraction, representation of the process or phenomenon in its generalized lines. This lexicon is analyzed using examples from the 2000-2010 business press. Its functioning within a media discourse testifies to a tendency to rapprochement of a media picture with a scientific picture of the world. The information-analytical media discourse establishes the implicit style and reference convention of audience elitarization.
Sheozheva B.A., Abregov A.N.
Lingual ecology: speech culture of the younger generation as component of the general culture of the personality
The paper explores the intralingual aspect of language ecology associated with the standard of speech, in particular, results of a research of violations of correctness, clarity, logicality, expressiveness and other communicative features in the speech of students – not philologists and the reason of communicative failures. Problems of a lingual ecology are defined as an important component of ecology of culture. The conducted research allows us to estimate a condition of speech culture of modern society, and to identify some dangerous processes proceeding in it. This is important since good knowledge of Russian, the correct speech were and will be topical always. Use of research methods adequate to objectives – observations of the spontaneous speech of students during the oral and written poll and performance of practical tasks, testings, questioning; systematization and the description of mistakes with use of quantitative and qualitative characteristics, and the analysis of the reasons of their emergence – enabled us to bring together evidential base of the offered conclusions sufficient for justification. Within the research we give the characteristic of a condition of speech culture of society at the present stage, prove the need to protect Russian, and define ways to improve speech culture of the younger generation. Systematic lingual ecological monitoring, revealing the unhealthy phenomena and tendencies in the mass speech, allows us to solve a problem on their elimination in time. Thus, this research makes a certain contribution to development of the designated intralingual aspect of language ecology, proposing to elucidate language culture in ecological aspect, i.e. as a part of the healthy surrounding speech environment of existence. The conclusion is drawn that the academic speech of students which is maintained within scientific (book) style can serve as the main support in the course of correction of speech skills of students.
Poetic originality of Boris Utizhev’s lyrics
This paper deals with skill of Boris Utizhev (1940-2008) proceeding from the materials of his lyrics, linking them with the problem of innovation and creative individuality. It also investigates the evolution of particular lyric genres in the Adyghe poetry, a significant contribution to which was made by Boris Utizhev. Aesthetic analysis of poems of the poet was carried out on the basis of word for word translation into Russian. This procedure is justified by the lack of artistic translation. The aim of this paper is to introduce new materials concerning uncharted facets of creativity of famous playwright and writer for scientific use. Particular attention is paid to the originality of the poet to create a new poetic quality and original sound organization of the verse. The publication presents different points of view of the theory in the definition of «philosophical lyrics.» Sufficient attention is paid to the originality of figurative-expressive means of B. Utizhev. The results of scientific observations can be put into practice in secondary and higher institutions, which study creativity of B. Utizhev. They will be in demand by students, graduate students and researchers in the literature of the North Caucasus peoples.
Dzhambekova T.B., Dzhambekov O.A.
Typology of the image of Zelimkhan and some issues of artistic individuality of the novel «The Storm» by A. Aydamirov
This paper is based on the material of the novel «The Storm» written by the well-known Chechen writer Abuzar Aydamirov. The paper deals with the mythologem of the “noble robber”, the legendary Abrek of the early twentieth century Zelimkhan Kharachoevsky. The typology of folklorizm of the Chechen historical prose in the field of the subject of abrechestvo is identified and analyzed in unity of a genre, art structure and poetic figurativeness. On the basis of historical, literary and textual methods it is shown that all twenty eight chapters of the work are noted for depth and complexity of the public, philosophical, moral and psychological questions put in them. In the novel, with a special force the author aspires to show destiny of the homeland through destiny of the hero, formation of call of duty, responsibility to himself, to the people and to the homeland. The people history in the novel is closely bound with personal destiny of A. Aydamirov. It is unusually topical for the writer since it is one of the sides uniting favourite subjects of the writer – the subject of the homeland and freedom. Features of national character are represented through a prism of sources and destiny of his heroes, first of all, of Zelimkhan. The importance of this subject is defined not only by especially national and regional, local and specific historical character of the material, which is relevant not only for the Chechen and North Caucasian tradition, but also by its universal features recorded in archetypic images and mythologems of the noble robber and in its phenomenon inseparable from historical and spiritual development of any ethnos.
Collective individual of Paul Auster (from materials of the novel “The New York Trilogy”)
The paper provides a brief review showing the origin of the new stage of development of the American literature expressed in emergence of the new type of the hero with characteristic traits of «the collective individual». Its emergence is characterized by mergence of philosophical and literary categories that is most brightly shown in “The New York Trilogy” by Paul Auster. Research gives a new view on the person (character) in the society and presents the point of view, innovative for the American literature, on the reader as the person capable to make spiritual jump from belief in the validity of the life (chosenness of the USA among all mankind) to the sacral truth (vision of the American nation as part of mankind). Work is based on proceedings of the Russian philosophers, supporters of intuitionalism (N.O. Lossky) and gnoseology (N.A. Berdyaev).
Providence, omens, dreams, daydreams and transformations as types of designing simulacra in J. Koshubaev’s text «There was a day of happiness»
In this paper, we explore the phenomenon of the simulacrum performing a function of cognizing the truth in art space of postmodernism literature as a way to reflect the imagined reality. Within postmodern literary paradigm, we examine the ambivalent function of a simulacrum capable not only to destroy complete idea of reality, but also to form a new impossible object of perception splinters. Special attention is paid to dreams, which have conceptual significance in postmodernism poetics. The dream is a code which transposes terrestrial in eternal. The purpose of this research is to analyze the mechanism of formation and action of simulacra which replace artistic images in space of the postmodern text basing on material of the text of J. Koshubaev «There was a day of happiness». Scientific and practical importance of this research lies in that the obtained data can promote more detailed studying of this phenomenon having various forms of the realization in the art word since the complete theory of a simulacrum and methodology of its analysis in modern literary criticism is insufficiently developed.
Intertextual strategies in «Gothic» texts (from material of the English prose of the 18th century)
We examine the intertextual strategies in the English «Gothic» prose of the 18th century basing on the concept of an intertext and intertextuality of M.M. Bakhtin, Yu Kristeva, etc. Two types of the intertextuality are analyzed: internal and external. Text realization of the internal intertextuality happens in a literary mystification, in insertable intra text elements. The external intertextuality is manifested in a syncretic intertextuality, hints, reminiscences and epigraphs. Methods of a historical, literary, textual and culturological research of fiction works are used. The scientific and practical importance and relevance of this work lie in that the intertextuality of «Gothic» texts is not investigated. Main are conclusions that in literary «Gothic style» the inter text is not only the organization of loans of the text, but also method of art thinking, based on entry of «Gothic» texts into a uniform discourse.
Kuban Pre-Revolutionary Press on A. P. Chekhov: Two Obituaries
The present research, carried out under the general theme «Chekhov and Kuban», is devoted to the response of contemporaries to A.P. Chekhov’s death. The purpose of the article is post-mortem examination of the portrait of the great writer, as it was reflected on the pages of the main newspaper of Kuban region. Obituary notes, published in the «Kubanskie Oblastnye Vedomosti» in 1904, are entered into the scientific circulation for the first time, they have never been studied by the scholars of Chekhov. The scientific value of the research is to enrich the picture of perception of A.P. Chekhov’s creativity through the study of attitude towards him in Kuban. Opinion of his Kuna contemporaries is very important and has never been taken into account, therefore, virtually eliminated from the background of important cultural processes of the 1900s, as well as in understanding the mechanisms of creating the so-called Chekhov’s myth. The use of cultural and historical method allows us to consider the obituaries in their correlation with the environment in which they appeared, and in connection with the sociological method of interpretation of literature, which played such an important role in the public mind of the late 19th - early 20th century, when writers were assigned the role of teachers and mentors. Kuban obituaries, in full compliance with the requirements of the genre, which reached by that time its heyday, fix the high status of A.P. Chekhov among the reading public, provide an assessment of his outstanding contribution to the spiritual life and culture of Russia. This aspect of the study of newspaper comments on the death of Chekhov is not only of historical and factual, but also of practical significance for the reconstruction of all-Russian and regional cultural context of the era.
Caucasus and Russia: art communications and influence as factor of cross-cultural dialogue
The paper analyzes the peculiarities of interethnic cultural interaction as a social process. At the present stage of development of processes of cultural globalization, the study of any national literature is limited, provided it is considered outside the literature movement, because different national literature are somehow related to each other and their development is taking place in the atmosphere of these relations. Only in the course of interaction of literatures does the structure of the literary process appear as a moving reality, the carrier of elements of the national and world development. Therefore, the problems related to the integration of cultural ties, are in need of understanding and painstaking study. This is quite the relevance of the study of artistic relationships and influences as a factor of cross-cultural dialogue. The aim of this work is to understand the theoretical aspect of mutual enrichment and interpenetration of national literatures. Describing fiction as an art form, we arrive at a conclusion that in those circumstances, when dialogue in a broad sense of its value, was a prerequisite for the survival of mankind, the concept of the evolution of national literatures on the basis of their mutual influence not only comes into effect, but becomes an independent trend of the world literary process. Results of the analysis can be useful as one of many aspects of the study of the modern national ideological concept of the multinational Russian state, since it involves the study of the unity of Russian literature from the point of view of cultural interaction and friendly mutual influence of various ethnic groups.
Khuazheva N.Kh., Tsey B.A.
«White Gold and Coal» by Khabas Beshtokov: topics and problems
The authors carry out a detailed textual analysis of works of Khabas Beshtokov from the book «White Gold and Coal» in original language. In this book, for the first time in the Adyghe literature the poet uses the synthesized genre - the novel diary in verses. The topics and problems of the novel diary and drama poems are considered. The emphasis is made on plot-composite creation of texts, a style and genre originality, features of art skill of the poet and language features of works. The considerable attention is paid to variety, novelty and efficiency of the methods and techniques used by the poet for substantiation of unity of practice and philosophy of life. The scientific and practical importance of this work is defined by its innovative character related to the textual analysis of the poor-studied Khabas Beshtokov’s works and by identification of topics and problems of the novel diary in verses. The carried-out analysis of works makes a certain contribution to comparative and typological literary criticism. In a research, methods of the historical, literary amd culturological analysis of the work of art are used. The conclusion is drawn that preservation of moral purity, traditions of ancestors is the firm moral basis of life. This is the spiritual feat of the «ideal» hero whose portrait characteristic was created by the poet Khabas Beshtokov in the book «White Gold and Coal». Results of this research can be used in creation of «History of the Adyghe (Circassian) Literature».
Philosophical lyrics of Meulid Enamukov
Verses and poems of Meulid Enamukov, the Adyghe poet, prose writer and translator who came back to the historical Homeland from Turkey, the member of the Russian Writers’ Union, are examined to carry out the literary analysis of philosophical lyrics of the poet (the collection of verses and poems «Thoughts about Mountains», 2005). An attempt is undertaken for the first time to estimate the author’s contribution to the Adyghe literature. Methods of the historical, literary, textual and culturological analysis of the work of art are used. The main content of a research is the analysis of the philosophical poem «Thoughts about Mountains» and poems written in the late 20th and in the early 21st centuries. The profound philosophical content of the poem is noted - a unification of the Nature and the Person, sense of the birth and appointment of the person, and creativity perception as pleasure. Characteristic features of creativity of Meulid Enamukov are allocated and described: each work is the whole and holistic world in which each element lives with feeling of own freedom, in full harmony with the world around; creation of works on a joint of perception of himself «in the foreign land» (in Turkey) and in the homeland; frequent use of «ring» composition in lyrics. The analysis of fiction texts of Meulid Enamukov allowed the author to draw conclusions on great poetic skills, on variety of the applied art and on pictorial means and techniques in works of the poet. The scientific and practical importance and relevance of this work are defined by its innovative character related to the textual analysis of Meulid Enamukov’s works which are not investigated in the Adyghe literature. Results of this research can be used in creation of the book «Stories of the Adyghe Literature».
Chekalov P.K., Tamakhina E.Yu., Panesh S.R.
Semantics of the opposition light/dark in the lyrics of A. Akhmatova
The paper explores the role of color names in the lyrical poems of Anna Akhmatova. The aim of the paper is to define the semantics and to identify the semantic content of the opposition light / dark. This becomes important due to the fact that color becomes the key to the reading some poems and to interpreting the psychological state of the lyrical hero or heroine. This aspect will allow an adequate interpretation of the works of Akhmatova. The main research method is functional, but elements of mythological and motivic analysis are also used. On the basis of the study of twenty specific works, emotional, symbolic and semantic content of the lexemes «white» and «black», their correlation with different emotional states of the lyrical heroes were established. White light symbolizes the divine nature and at the same time death, the transition into the other world; black color, death, failure, hostility, gloomy and depressed state of lyrical heroine. The role of the dark color is defined in the description of the city and urban atmosphere. The research shows that color in the poetry of Akhmatova is an important component of psychological characteristics of the lyrical subject, a means of describing inner and outer worlds, and the spatial organization of the text. The importance and practical value of the work lies in revealing the semantic palette of the opposition light / dark.
Nart Ozyrmes: image and typology
Basing on previously published and archival materials, the sources and a typology of the image of one of the most popular characters of the Adyghean Nart epos are established for the first time. The historical - comparative method is used to define relationship of cycle motives with the Adyghean and Caucasian mythology. Principal attributes of the image are disclosed in the light of the concept of common historical and cultural roots of the epos. An indicator of the popularity of legends about Ozyrmes is not only the number of stories and frequency of their fixation, but also the geography of their distribution established for the first time. The reason is found why the productive period of the cycle devoted to this hero is so large - from early stages of formation of a patriarchal and patrimonial system to late forms marking transition to class society. This corresponds to a prolonged phase of early feudal relations giving rise to such a generic feature of the epos of the early type as a reflection of imaginary events and generalized ideal images rather than specific events and historical figures. Disclosed relationship between the content of the epic cycle and the nature of reality reflection in it promotes originally scientific understanding of the nature of mythological thinking and its transformation in the epos.
Songs about Kostryuk and Kabardian Prince Temryuk: two views
The paper investigates the ideological and art features of the Russian and Kabardian historical songs related to Ivan the Terrible’s marriage on the Kabardian princess Maria Temryukovna. Text materials of songs give an idea of a cycle of works noted for diverse contents. The analysis basing on numerous national sources and periodicals reflects their genre, structural and style features. The Russian national and Kabardian historical songs dedicated to the political alliance between the Russian State and feudal Kabarda display various national estimates of this political event and are similar in the poetic form. The analysis technique constructed on combination of the principles of sociocultural and comparative-historical methods of research helps to show not only ideological and art lines of the separate folklore phenomena, but also to put theoretical problems of folklore as esthetic phenomenon. The ideological and art originality of the Russian and Kabardian historical songs dedicated to marriage of Ivan the Terrible is defined. National peculiarities of works are noted. An attempt of their systematization and genre classification is made. Results of research and conclusions of work can be used to study problems of folklore and literature.
Satirical narrative: the ontologic status of folklore models in plot morphology
The aim of this paper is to examine models of folklore as the constituents of the satirical narrative. Methodology of the research is due to the specifics of the object and the subject: an integrated approach is applied to study a satirical narrative in unity of the historical and genetic, comparative-historical and typological methods specified by means of the principles of structuralism, post-structuralism, hermeneutics and phenomenology. The scientific value lies in establishing the role of narrative in the explication of the author’s concept of the world, therefore the satirical trend of the narrative acquires specific properties precisely eventful as its fundamental trait. The plot is interpreted from positions of its formation by means of folklore models, and it is necessary to consider lack of reference character at these types of a narrative a prerequisite of their functioning in the satirical narrative and synthesis of the last with philosophical. Satirical conditionality as its special type develops on the basis of folklore models, and ability immanently inherent in a narrative to create the worlds which do not have reference character allows formation of such types of conditionality in which communication with reality is almost lost. The practical importance is caused by a possibility of use of results of research when studying modifications of satire in its historical dynamics, and also in consideration of features of various genres.
Unarokova R.B., Unarokova F.D.
Subject domain of a song complaint of Lilyusha: lingual folklore aspect
Lilyusha’s song complaint is examined to detect specifics of its subject domain. This problem is investigated in a lingual folkloristic aspect for the first time. Therefore it is topical and new. The history of the main hero, from whose name the song is composed, is described. The time context of events, the motives of which are reflected in subject space of the text, is characterized. The subject domain of a song is analyzed as a part of whole, and as a system-forming fragment of the Adyghe folklore picture of the world. A practical part is based on one text unit. The structure of subject domain of the song complaint, the components of which are semes «the homeless childhood», «life beyond the law», «prison», «fear of oblivion», «pain for the family», is defined. The attributes, actualizing semes of subject domain of a song, are analyzed. The method of the comparative and typological analysis of the folklore text, and lexicographic method are used. The importance of this work is in use of its results in study of lingual folkloristic specifics of subject domain of all the Adyghe modern songs complaints. The conclusion is drawn about a variety of types of the art organization of semes in subject domain of a certain folklore text.
Contemporary literary myth: genesis and tendencies
The paper updates the value of myth and its reflection in contemporary literature, outlines the key stages of its development, which can detect the dominant facets of scientific and cultural interest in it at different stages of its development. Occurrence of neomythologism in modern Adyghe literature of the late twentieth century led to interest in the myth of the theory, in particular, its historical and analytical discourse. Authors of the paper release intertext as a constant figure, which in different forms is present in the works of Adyghe authors, and allows us to consider it as symptomatic technique in artistic representation of the novel-myth or story-a parable. An analysis of the history of myth convinces in universalization of development of the novel-myth genre, which has acquired a global distribution, including the North Caucasus region. This study belongs to the new and poorly studied areas of literary criticism, and, of course, will be of interest to philologists and cultural scientists.
On combination of Pagan and Christian religious images and motives in the ancient Adyghe songs incantations
It is well known that in oral poetic creativity of Adyghes, genre modifications of a song figure prominently. In this paper we put the task to clarify the questions related to reflection in the ancient Adyghe songs incantations of Pagan and Christian motives and figurative means. The data obtained within the research, based on studying of numerous domestic sources and periodicals cover archaic layer of national songs, reflect the signs of pagan belief shown in it in the conditions of the settled polytheism, and give the characteristic of transformation of the Christian motives which also exerted impact on oral prose and poetry of the people. Pagan and Christian motives and figurative means, in the author’s opinion, exerted especially strong impact on formation of genre forms of a song incantation. The analysis technique relying on the integrated approach, combining the principles of historical-literary and comparative - typological methods of research helps to reveal art features of separate folklore works and to correlate them to theoretical problems of folklore as phenomenal esthetic phenomenon. Work specifies sources and character of art forms of songs incantations and expands, thus, idea of genres of the Adyghe folklore that promotes definition of a national originality of the all Adyghe folklore. Results of the analysis and author’s conclusions can be used in investigating the theory and history of folklore and literature and in development of textbooks and education manuals.
Adyghe children’s game folklore
The Adyghe children’s game folklore is examined. In the Adyghe folklore studies some questions concerning genre specifics of separate games, and poetics of the texts included in their plot were investigated. However children’s game folklore as the holistic phenomenon was not investigated. In this work the problem of classification of the Adyghe children’s game folklore and description of specifics of functioning of the fiction text in the game field is put for the first time. This is relevant. The scientific and practical importance of the paper is that the principles of classification of children’s game folklore and genre structure are defined. Poetic forms of word games are of special interest. The types of texts functioning in a verbal part of games are analyzed, and the attention is focused on their art specifics. Such types as role texts, texts of the game right, game magic, texts of encouragement and punishments are allocated. Game loci are defined. Art formulas of texts are considered. In outdoor subject games of special importance are poetic counting rhymes, formulas beginnings, formulas - rules of the game and trailer formulas. Comparative, structural and typological methods of research are applied. The author comes to a conclusion that children’s game folklore of the Adyghes is rather diverse and promotes physical and intellectual development of children. Artistically organized texts, which are contained in games, allow us to define their genre specifics.
City as imagology object
The city is explored as an imagology object. Prerequisites of designing the image of the city are made. In view of this we reveal and describe the components of the image of the city as the absolute factors promoting construction of effective marketing and PR-strategies. This work studies numerous scientific articles on the basis of which the author focuses attention to the new role of provincial towns rather than the capital cities of Russia in formation of image of the country on the whole as is accepted. In this we see relevance of this research, its scientific and practical importance. Subimage of the city is promising for further research. The analysis method is applied. Views are provided on the basis of which the image of the city is formed.
Nechay Yu.P., Khlopunova O.V.
Specific features of the modern book market in Russia
The paper considers the components of domestic book market in terms of economy and major difficulties in its formation and development. Based on the data, obtained through the scientific research in which numerous domestic and foreign sources of periodicals have been studied, the current state of Russian Publishing System is analyzed. Scientific and practical significance of this work is determined by its innovative nature related to the consideration of the weak links in Russian Book Publishing and negative trends and problems which cannot be solved yet. It is noted that the state of Russian Publishing System is still weak and requires fundamental changes. The results of the study can be used to improve the marketing environment of Russian Book Market.
Electronic media as tool to form positive image of the Adyghea Republic
Information resources of the Internet space are explored as a tool to form and advance the positive image of the region. Special attention is paid to Internet mass-media as to the available source of obtaining information having unlimited audience. A research objective is to reveal the audience informing sources, their role in advancing a brand of Adyghea, and to form its positive image. An attempt is undertaken to make a certain contribution to a research of ways of formation of the region image in information space, to increase its popularity and to recognize the Adyghea Republic by electronic media. The basis of this research is elucidation of image of the Adyghea Republic in network media in the Russian media space. The data obtained within this scientific research are based on studying numerous electronic media sources and promote definition of information source reliability on the Internet. The conclusion is drawn that introduction of an interactive becomes the leading tendency of mass media in the Russian information space. This circumstance leads to rapid distribution of information on the region, on the advance of the Adyghea Republic brand, and on its positive image. The obtained data can find application in the course of optimization of the Adyghea Republic positive image formation. This will expand opportunities for attracting investments to the region, doing it more attractive to inhabitants and tourists.
Study of Arts
Some aspects of studying musical culture of the people of the North Caucasu
One of the important directions in music education is studying the ethnoculture, customs, traditions, folklore, and professional musical art of the people inhabiting the region. The comparative analysis of music of the people of the Caucasus shows that a range of problems and the figurative sphere are similar, that musical texture of works is penetrated by typical lines of national music – melodics, rhythmics and harmony – and that folk musical art in synthesis with professional composer art find reflection in works of composers of the North Caucasus. Involvement of younger generation in this area of musical knowledge and formation of the positive attitude to art, in particular, to musical culture of native and other ethnoses allows solving problems of esthetic and moral education. This paper is addition to the available theoretical and methodical presentations related to studying folk music and music of composers of the Caucasus.
Basic principles of story development of a game project within the framework of game design
Characteristic features and functions of the plot in art in general and in game design as its branch in particular are defined and analyzed, considering various technological and formal restrictions imposed by the digital environment of the project, as well as by need to meet expectations of target audience in many respects dictated by genre of the project. Data obtained as a result of studying the numerous Russian and foreign authoritative sources and peer-reviewed periodicals on various aspects of game design, ludology and digital technologies promote definition of a role and functions of the plot in experiencing certain emotions in gameplay by the user, highlighting the relationship between the plot and the genre, as well as the adaptation of archetypes that are an integral part of the plot to the needs and conditions of the digital environment. The theoretical importance of this research lies in an attempt to adapt tools and previously obtained results concerning the principles of plot development of other art forms, such as cinema and literature, to the implementation in such a highly sophisticated and fast developing discipline as game design in order to increase the artistic and esthetic value of projects and deepen the sense of immersion in the gameplay, as well as to facilitate and fasten the self-identification of a user with a character within the gameplay. The practical importance of the procured data lies in the possibility to use the present best practices for simplification of plot development of a game project based on the understanding of the plot structure and the dynamics of the development of each of its parts. The latter in its turn allows decreasing production costs and the number of the internal contradictions that are able to lower the quality of a project and worsen its esthetic and consumer properties. On the whole, the obtained data can be used both in actual practice in order to systematize the development process in a highly competitive market and be used as a theoretical base for an in-depth study of the principles of game design being a project discipline occupying a unique position on a joint at the confluence of esthetics and information technology.
Meaning of the concept «shertpe» in the Kazakh dombra traditional music
The etymology of the term «shertpe» in the Kazakh dombra traditional culture is examined. Relevance of work is defined by novelty of a subject and its cross-disciplinary character. The goal of the paper is to reveal a complex of meanings of the concept «shertpe» that allows reconstruction of the ancient processes happening in culture. It is suggested that the term «shertpe» was derived from the verb «shert» (to click a finger) or attribute «sher» (special emotional state of mind). Folklore idioms, the Kazakh proverbs and sayings, and term descriptions in dictionaries serve a proof. Several variants of formation of this term are possible: the word describes a way of sound extraction on dombra and/or designates a strong emotional response to the event «sher» when «soul strings» are touched. Debatable character of the put-forward provisions is noted that can arouse particular interest in the subject from philologists, linguists, specialists in folklore and ethnic musicologists. In conclusions, an emphasis is placed on semantic plurality of word meanings «sher», «shert», «shertip» and «shertkish», reflecting depth of tradition and the content of dombra music, sound fullness and a manner of sound extraction. Terminological «family» is related to disclosure of internal content of tradition shertpe.
Genre interactions in music for a violin solo of the last third of the 20th century
For the first time an analysis is carried out of the genre and stylistic interaction in music for solo violin of the last third of the twentieth century, created by order of the performers, the competition jury members, and on Memorial occasions which entered the concert and educational repertoire. The goal of this study is to identify the specificities of such interactions in the works with genre designation (variations on the Royal theme of Jung and Echo-sonata of Shchedrin) and works where the genre signs are hidden («Aurora Ring» by Kajponen, Fantasy «In memory of Oistrakh» by Frolov and Zaborov’s Improvisation). The leading feature of the considered works is their multi-genre character, where the genre acts as a model of compositional-technical experiment of the author. At Jung and Shchedrin this is a two-tier process: sonata’s Allegro at the highest level as a result of variation grouping by sonata standards. Disclosed is the interpenetration of the principles of an era of Baroque with citing Bach’s themes and composer technologies of the 20th century. The second type – genre hybrids – where the core genre is identified (sonata’s Allegro in Zaborov’s Improvisation, classic or poem unicycles at Kajponen and Frolov), synthesized with the regularities of variations, rondos, fantasies, virtuoso etudes, caprices. Rigid constructive methods of deployment and compression of interval and accord complexes, their dispersals in space of a vertical and horizontal with the subsequent integration are used. Style and genre intertextuality helps build large-scale philosophical concepts: tragic from Shchedrin and Frolov, the concept of transformation from Jung and Kajponen, the virtual universe from Zaborov’s Improvisation. The findings are in line with the priority issues of modern musicology.
Methodological principles of Sigurd Rascher and their role in the evolution of performing on saxophone in the first half of the twentieth century
In the paper, for the first time, the methodological principles of S. Rascher that influenced the evolution of saxophonists’ thinking in the early twentieth century are examined on the basis of the analysis of teaching manual “Top-tones for the saxophone. Four-octave range”. The choice of material was due to a special interest in methodological legacy of the musician. In the book, the author, one of the first, focuses on mandatory preliminary work necessary to expand the range, which is based on the development of the inner ear, flexibility of embouchure and formation of air jet management skills. Central in this concept was the provision requiring mastery of ultra-high register of the saxophone, previously this was not paid attention. Quite significant are the findings of mastering and improving speed dynamics. The attention is focused on achieving uniformity of tone and volume of each sound in the entire range of the instrument. Significant were the thoughts on the relationship of the internal hearing and mental abilities of performer, helping to control the sound production. Truly revolutionary are remarks about the need to combine the ability to extract overtone with fingering of ultrahigh register. Beliefs of S. Rascher and many issues touched by him to some extent anticipated the principles of performance in the subsequent historical periods and continued to develop fruitfully in the second half of the twentieth century.
Traditions and innovation of the early 20th - century art
The paper analyzes how the main tendencies in development of the fine arts in the early 20th century changed. Some conditions of emergence of the vanguard directions, their distinctive features and the relation to traditional academic art are noted. The publication examines the reasons which can interfere with perception of unusual and new. The research is implemented on the basis of theoretical works of the leading avant-garde artists of the early 20th century V.V. Kandinsky, K.S. Malevich and F.T. Marinetti. This made it possible to understand and estimate their creativity and creativity of other representatives of vanguard from the new point of view. On the basis of the analysis of works of representatives of art and other scientists and researchers, we consider historical, social and psychological aspects of emergence of the conditions promoting degradation of classical heritage of the fine arts, as well as the reasons of the antagonistic relations between traditional art and the arising avant-gardism. The practical importance of research can be that it discloses internal motives and the causes of conflict between traditional and vanguard art that will give understanding of works of avant-garde artists and will open opportunities for understanding of the specific vanguard work. The research, basing on data from various sources and including works of the famous avant-garde artists, will give a reason to study creativity and perception of nonconventional art from the point of view of the scientist-creator, the artist-researcher, who by using the conscious word submits the creative concept. Important practical value of this research is that it can help direct study of the works complex in form and content to the area of the conceptual theoretical analysis basing on primary sources.