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#4 / 2016
Avrutina A.S. (Apollinaria Sergeevna)
A quantitative review for the text of mesnevi «Süheyl- ü Nevbahar»
The quantitative analysis is made and the typological characteristics are described for the language of the literary monument «Süheyl-ü Nevbahar» written in the Asia Minor in the 14th century by Khoja Mesud. The plot of the conventionally called Old Anatolian Turkic mesnevi is a love story of Süheyl, Yemeni Crown Prince and Nevbahar, the Chinese Emperor’s daughter. Assumptions about the composition of the phonological system in the language are made since the alphabetic character of Arabic and Persian alphabet, adapted for needs of Turkic languages, demonstrates not yet established orthography. The transliterated and recognized text was used for the quantitative formal calculations. This paper is one of the series whithin the framework of the project on the development of Asia Minor Turkic languages in a historical perspective. The practical value of the stated material lies in a possibility of its application in higher school lecture courses on the theory of language, linguistics of the text and theory of a discourse.
Ways of an explication of a concept «space» in the English linguoculture
The main characteristics of a concept «space» in the English linguoculture are analyzed. Differential lines of the concept «space» are detected by language fixing in the content of thinking that allows determination of specific reality fragmentation by the English linguoculture, first of all, into internal and external space as a correlation of objects location. In the English language picture of the world the studied concept is determined by outlook, the dominating philosophy, axiological system, cultural traditions, religious beliefs, etc. These factors emphasize anthropocentricity of this linguocultural phenomenon. A theoretical significance lies in deepening and elucidation of a conceptology, phraseology and in further development of the theory of language. The practical value of this material lies in a possibility of its application in higher school lecture courses of a lexicology, cultural linguistics, the theory of language, etc.
Akhidzhakova M.P., Buyanova L.Yu.
Cultural value of national phraseology: linguo-confessional aspect
The paper analyzes the main characteristics of phraseological expressions of different structural-semantic types. Also the work studies specifics of a national phraseological tier as a cultural evolutional active layer of a civilization. The authors introduce the concept of «semantic dominant» and disclose features of representation of confessional aspect of specific linguoculture by means of phraseological expressions. It is reasoned that the phraseological picture of the world as result of the composite creative activity of thinking carries out a categorization and phraseological conceptualization of the world, life and traditions of the people. Such steady reproduced idiomatic units which reflect the assessment and the attitude towards environmental reality in a figurative and expressional form, act as system-forming fragments, elements of the phraseological field. A theoretical significance of this material is that it can be used to deepen knowledge in phraseology and to further develop the theory of language. The practical value of this material lies in a possibility of its application in higher school lecture courses on a lexicology, cultural linguistics, the theory of language, etc.
Badanyan I.F., Evsyukova T.V.
Language implementers of an image of the business woman in a media discourse (from material of the Russian and German languages)
The paper identifies and describes linguo-stylistic implementers of an image of the modern business woman in a media discourse. The language tools used to create an image of the business woman are analyzed and specifics of their functioning are disclosed by means of the descriptive analytical research technique, including observation of the analyzed language phenomena, their analysis and classification and interpretation of the obtained results. The texts of information, analytical and business publications published in periodic printing or electronic editions in the Russian and German languages became practical material. It is established that language means of formation of an image of the business woman in the Russian and German media discourse are as well means of expression of author’s assessment which is explicitly or implicitly present in the media text. Significance of this research for the theory of language lies in expansion of ideas of language mechanisms of creation of an image of the business woman in a media discourse, and also in systematization of the language tools expressing the relevant features, characteristic of an image of the business woman.
Bedanokova Z.K., Bedanokova S.K.
Evocativity: about the term, concept and the principle of complementarity
The methodological analysis of category of evocativity is carried out. The paper deals with the terminological and conceptual questions of studying this extremely composite semiotic mechanism of language by detection of correlation between the categories entering the categorial and functional semiotic field of evocativity. The authors emphasize relevance of a research of evocativity as creative semiotic activity in the influencing discourse and disclose the methodological and heuristic potential of the category of evocative speech-thinking act. The evocativity is represented as property and function of a sign of a special form to generate the complicated, polyphonical plan of contents. The evocative mechanism is used for creative speech-language activity and for impact on the recipient, implementing, first of all, poetic and connotative functions of language.
Verbalization of a concept of «policy» in the Turkish political discourse of an oral public speech
The paper deals with features of representation of a concept of «policy» in the Turkish political discourse of an oral public speech. The purpose of this publication is to describe the contents of this concept and to consider ways of its linguistic representation. Oral public addresses of the Turkish politicians, namely the President, Prime Minister, Turkish Foreign Minister served as material of this research. On the basis of semantic-cognitive and linguoculturological methods an attempt is made for the first time to describe and analyze this concept in the Turkish political discourse. A theoretical significance is substantiated by further development of the analysis of concepts of the Turkish political discourse. Core signs of this concept are put in the contents of lexicographic sources. As a result of the analysis of dictionary entries addressed to the concept, its conceptual layer, i.e. a core was allocated. The metaphor acts as the brightest and effective tool to implement connotative meanings since it is fully capable to reflect the language picture of the world. Therefore the research of a figurative component of the concept made it possible to build and to comprehensively describe the complete model and the essence of the periphery of this concept.
Text as presentation of the language personality of its creator
Key parameters of the text as the finished speech message are identified and analyzed. The data obtained within the presented scientific research based on studying the numerous national and foreign authoritative sources and peer-reviewed periodicals on the text analysis promote determination of the fundamental parameters of the text causing its cohesion and interlocutory nature. The theoretical importance of the results of this research lies in systematization of approaches to study questions of pragmatical aspect of work of the text and the process of its functioning as reconstruction by the recipient of some code containing in this text, as well as to apply the revealed tendencies for the analysis of the language personality of the creator of the text work. The obtained data can be successfully applied both to immediately study the lexical syntactic and structural organization of the text space and as a theoretical basis for further studying a coding and decoding of information containing in text material.
Dzhandar B.M., Loova A.D.
Stereotype functions in shaping a language picture of the world
Phraseological units of the German and Adyghe languages are used to explore functioning of such linguocultural phenomena as stereotypes. Stereotypes are analyzed as some fragment of a conceptual picture of the world and as steady cultural-national idea of a subject, phenomenon or situation. It is emphasized that belonging to this or that culture is defined by existence of the basic stereotypic core of knowledge which is repeated in the course of the personality socialization in this society. Therefore stereotypes are considered as important names in culture. The technique of the research is based on the comparative analysis of heterostereotypes in the cultures considered. Studying a stereotype in the light of cognitive linguistics and detection of national specifics of its content is an interesting and important problem both in theoretical and in practical aspects. Also the obtained data can be used to study autostereotypes to show a stereotype as the phenomenon of the language and speech and as the stabilizing factor having an opportunity, on the one hand, to store and transform some dominant components of this culture, and on the other, to display or recognize itself among «the other».
Adyghe historical toponymics: experience in sense reconstruction
The paper investigates the history of the toponym Kurkoy kjal (the Kurkoy Fortress) in order to reconstruct its meaning. This fortress is located on the suburb of the settlement of Varenikovskaya in the Krasnodar Region. In the Adyghe lexicology such a problem is put for the first time and this is relevant and new. Lexicographic, historical sources (topographic, military and historical maps, official reports and papers on the course of military operations, materials related to «the description of areas of the Caucasus»), as well as data on the Adyghe folklore are involved in this research. The comparative analysis of all recorded variants of this toponym is carried out. The attracted material allows us to suggest that Kurkoy (Kurkay) is not only toponym, but also the Adyghe ancient geographical term designating the area with a large number of mud volcanoes and hot springs. The comparative, typological, cognitive and semantic analyses are applied as the main methods of study. It is concluded that results of this research can be used for further studying history of the toponyms lost in connection with tragic events of the Caucasus War.
Informatory features of discourse in social-political journals
Informatory features of discourse of social-political journals are investigated. The structure of these journals and their rubrication are described. The purpose of this paper is to identify the key topics of discourse and to examine correlation of these concepts with the picture of the world. The practical, scientific importance and relevance of this work are defined by presentation of the theoretical points of view on specifics and characteristics of the specified concepts. The following methods of the linguistic analysis are used: observation, description, differentiation and contextual method. The paper discloses features of the use and perception of the media topics in social-political discourse. The theoretical points of view on specifics of the content of the social-political journals are reviewed. In turn, this study makes a certain contribution to typological researches of the media. The author ascertains that the content of these journals reflects the world view of the society and embraces key media topics in social-political discourse.
National-cultural specifics of communicative strategies (on the basis of texts of the international non-governmental organization of Amnesty International)
The paper describes the communicative strategies, which are used in texts of Amnesty International, the international non-governmental organization. These strategies reflect the work of this organization in two countries – France and Russia. The activity of Amnesty International aims at uniting people of goodwill of various nations and shaping the international public opinion. Features of a potential national audience are taken into account by addressees of the texts of various genres, which have been published in Russian and French sites. They focus on the analysis of communicative activities of the organization, which are considered from two sides: on the one hand, basic and universal principles, which are the cornerstone of the campaigns conducted by it, and on the other hand, the features which are caused by national specifics of this or that country (in this case – Russia and France). Identification of the national-cultural component of campaigns, conducted by the organization, which are reflected in the texts in the Russian and French languages, demanded the use of a method of linguo-cultural interpretation, as well as the comparative and contextual analyses. For the first time, the texts of the international non-governmental organization become the object of linguistic research in general and in the comparative aspect, in particular this determines the theoretical and practical significance of the proposed description for the theory of speech influence and cultural linguistics.
Noskova N.A., Akhidzhakova M.P.
Mentality as basis of the concept of «language consciousness»
The paper identifies and analyzes the consciousness activity synthesizing the mental processes forming the mentality expressed by language as means of fixing of the mental world. Within the cognitive approach of learning language, focusing attention on its role, the authors disclose the fundamental principle of the phenomenon «language consciousness», and mentality is represented as a basis of the concept «language consciousness». It is reasoned that language is the most relevant accessor to consciousness. Also it is noted that in domestic linguistics the cognitive approach is not sufficiently categorized. A theoretical significance lies in deepening the theory that cognitive and language consciousnesses are represented as a correlation of general and specific being in close interrelation and being the fixed reflection of reality. Mental exclusiveness of ethnos is defined and two pictures of the world – language and conceptual – are allocated. It is concluded that language represents national mentality of its carriers, functioning as the consciousness tool that makes it possible to regard the category «language consciousness» as the ethnospecific way of interpretation of the world reflected in language. The practical value of the stated material lies in a possibility of its application in higher school lecture courses on the theory of language and text linguistics.
Concept of «liquid modernity» of Z. Bauman and modification of elite discourse practices
The paper discusses the transformation of the modern elite during an era of «liquid modernity» (according to Z. Bauman) in order to identify tendencies in shaping the elite discourse practices due to modification of social practices. Novelty of the presented research lies in that the research of the elite discourse practices is conducted from the perspective of a chronotope. In the course of the analysis the dominating concepts of the elite discourse practices during the era of late modernity are for the first time revealed and systematized. It is inferred that the concepts of «mobility», «exterritoriality», «unity», «the social capital» and «nepotism» become basic concepts of the elite discourse in the era of «liquid modernity». There occurs strengthening in degree of traditional closeness of elite and its development into absolute closeness, which is reflected in the discourse practices and behavioral patterns of elite in the era of «liquid modernity». Conclusions of this research can be used in further development of the theory of a discourse.
Cognitive-frame approach in terminology studies
The paper analyzes the cognitive-frame approach to the study of terminological systems and nomenclatures in view of cognitive linguistics. Research is carried out using numerous factological data of the macrofield of flora names, which in its turn is presented by three microfields (parametric, pragmatic and locative-temporal). Methodological bases of this research include the theory of frame semantics, the conception of prototypical semantics, the issues of conceptualization and categorization. The traditional semasiological and onomasiological approaches which have acquired the productive usage in the terminological theory, recently have gained a new cognitive-frame interpretation. This paper states that when the cognitive-frame approach is used, terminological systems and nomenclature are noted for nominative heterogeneity. Studying terminology of scientifically organized terminological systems occurs from the positions of scientific cognitive knowledge but studies in the sphere of naïve cognitive nomenclature are limited by flora and fauna realities, which are the products of naive cognitive knowledge. Within the developed floronymic terminological theory of the nomination, the author defines the semantic qualitative space of a term representing a conceptual frame. It reflects prototypical qualities of an object in flora nomination and it finds out the components of frame category: (a) associative links resulted from cultural archetypes and (b) logical-semantic relations. The theoretical significance of application of the cognitive-frame approach in the studies of terminological systems lies in specification of the laws of scientific cognitive/terminological nomination which is defined by the discourse-logical frame and in specification of naïve-cognitive/nomenclature nomination which is defined by the frame of emotional perception of flora object.
Concept the Caucasus in a scientific and naive picture of the world
The concept the Caucasus and ways of its representation in a scientific and naive picture of the world are investigated. Work is performed in line with cognitive linguistics and based on the theoretical developments dedicated to the basic concepts and categories of a lingual conceptology. The methodology of the complex linguo-cognitive analysis allows us not only to reveal the modern derivational paradigm of the lexeme the Caucasus reflecting new cognitive knowledge but also to define features of language representations of the studied concept in naive and scientific pictures of the world. The otonym occasionalisms and the Caucasian lexicon presented in a word-formation paradigm can serve linguists as practical material for developing dictionaries of various types. Fixing in themselves fragments of the world around by representatives of this or that linguocultural environment, proper names form special ethnocultural space in which their semantic potential is implemented. Ability of onyms to participate in thought process of the person and to keep knowledge of realities of the world around allows a thorough study of ethnocultural features and means of their representation.
On language originality of the Adyghe children’s literature
The paper investigates the language of children’s folklore texts and fiction works of the Adyghe poets and writers. A number of such specific features of language of the Adyghe children’s literature are distinguished, namely: a technique of syntactic parallels and repetitions, repetition of sentences and phrases, a combination of sentences, the use of special syntactic cliches, fantastic and legendary names, phraseological units, neologisms and foreign words. Of relevance is the system analysis of language features of children’s works since specifics of language of children’s literature are insufficiently investigated in linguistic science, and at the same time, interest of linguists to explore language of works of the modern authors for children increases. To identify and describe language features of works of the Adyghe poets and writers for children, the scientific literature devoted to developmental linguistics and specifics of language of children’s literature is studied and analyzed, the language tools used in children’s works are systematized and functions of these language tools and language features of works for children are defined. The obtained results can be used during the language analysis of other works of children’s literature.
Locative-directional preverbs in the Hattian and Abkhazian-Adyghe languages: a comparative aspect
Âïåðâûå ïðåäïðèíèìàåòñÿ ïîïûòêà âûÿâèòü ëîêàòèâíî-íàïðàâèòåëüíûå ïðåâåðáû â õàòòñêèõ ãëàãîëàõ è îïèñàòü èõ çíà÷åíèÿ è ôóíêöèè ïóòåì ñîïîñòàâëåíèÿ è ñðàâíåíèÿ ñ ëîêàòèâíî-íàïðàâèòåëüíûìè ïðåâåðáàìè â àáõàçî-àäûãñêèõ ÿçûêàõ. Ïðè âûäåëåíèè ïðåâåðáîâ âî âíèìàíèå ïðèíèìàëèñü çàêîíîìåðíûå çâóêîâûå ñîîòâåòñòâèÿ ãëàñíûõ, à òàêæå ñîãëàñíûõ â õàòòñêîì è àáõàçî-àäûãñêèõ ÿçûêàõ ïî çâîíêîñòè – ãëóõîñòè, ìÿãêîñòè – òâåðäîñòè è ò.ï. Õàòòñêèå ïðåâåðáû äàþòñÿ â ëàòèíèöå, èõ àáõàçî-àäûãñêèå ñîîòâåòñòâèÿ – â êèðèëëèöå è ëàòèíñêîé òðàíñëèòåðàöèè â êâàäðàòíûõ ñêîáêàõ. Ìàòåðèàëîì èññëåäîâàíèÿ ïîñëóæèëè òåêñòû äâóõ áèëèíãâ: «Î áîãå ëóíû, óïàâøåì ñ íåáà» è «Ñòðîèòåëüíûé ðèòóàë». Ìåòîäèêà èññëåäîâàíèÿ îñíîâàíà íà ïîëîæåíèÿõ êîãíèòèâíîé ñåìàíòèêè è òèïîëîãèè, îñíîâû êîòîðîé çàëîæèë Ëåîíàðä Òàëìè. Êàòåãîðèÿ ãëàãîëüíîé îðèåíòàöèè â õàòòñêîì ÿçûêå, ÿâëÿþùàÿñÿ ïðåäìåòîì íàñòîÿùåãî èññëåäîâàíèÿ, äî ñèõ ïîð íå ïîëó÷èëà îñâåùåíèÿ, åñëè íå ñ÷èòàòü ôðàãìåíòàðíûõ âûñêàçûâàíèé îòäåëüíûõ èññëåäîâàòåëåé. Àíàëèç è ñðàâíåíèå õàòòñêèõ ëîêàòèâíî-íàïðàâèòåëüíûõ ïðåâåðáîâ è èõ àáõàçî-àäûãñêèõ ýêâèâàëåíòîâ ïîçâîëèëè âûÿâèòü: 1) èõ ñîâïàäåíèå ïî ôîðìå è çíà÷åíèþ, 2) îáùíîñòü àðõåòèïà ëîêàòèâíî-íàïðàâèòåëüíûõ çíà÷åíèé â ñðàâíèâàåìûõ ÿçûêàõ, 3) èñïîëüçîâàíèå ïðèåìà èíêîðïîðàöèè äëÿ ðàñøèðåíèÿ çíà÷åíèÿ òîãî èëè èíîãî ïðåâåðáà. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, íåñìîòðÿ íà áîëüøîé ïðîìåæóòîê âðåìåíè, êîòîðûé ðàçäåëÿåò õàòòñêèé è àáõàçî-àäûãñêèå ÿçûêè, ñîîòâåòñòâèÿ ëîêàòèâíî-íàïðàâèòåëüíûõ ïðåâåðáîâ â ýòèõ ÿçûêàõ ïîçâîëÿþò ãîâîðèòü îá èõ áåññïîðíîì ðîäñòâå. Ðåçóëüòàòû èññëåäîâàíèÿ ìîãóò áûòü èñïîëüçîâàíû ïðè íàïèñàíèè èñòîðèè õàòòñêîãî è àáõàçî-àäûãñêèõ ÿçûêîâ è ïðè ðåêîíñòðóêöèè ÿçûêîâ, íå èìåþùèõ ïèñüìåííîé èñòîðèè.
The dynamics of conceptosphere of R. Bradbury’s fictional world (based on the novels «Dandelion Wine» and «Farewell Summer» by R. Bradbury)
In this paper, the author performs the study of conceptospheres of fictional discourse, as well as an analysis of their dynamics in the R. Bradbury’s works «Dandelion Wine» and «Farewell Summer». During the analysis, a literary text is considered as a complex structural and meaningful phenomenon in which the implementation of individual concepts is obtained. The study of these concepts makes it possible to reveal the specifics of productive features of fictional world of R. Bradbury. Synthesis of methods includes frequency dictionary and construction of concordance, followed by the application of the crystallization of the meaning techniques. Using these works, crystallization of artistic concepts was elucidated and productive metaconcepts were compared, on the basis of which the conclusion is drawn that basic concepts define specific characteristics of functioning of fictional discourse that allowed R. Bradbury to realize his aesthetic ideas. Results of the study may be useful in determining the origin of axiological coordinates of the worldview and in identifying the structural-semantic characteristics of the concepts, metaconcepts and conceptospheres within fictional and artistic discourse types.
The term in the modern scientific paradigm: features of interpretation
The paper describes the main characteristics of the term as the sign of scientific language and the peculiarities of its usage in the modern scientific paradigm. It represents the main point of view of the modern term interpretation in the works of representatives of the Krasnodar terminology school. The term is defined as one of the most important units of the scientific language. The most important feature and characteristic of scientific paradigm of the term is in favor of its belonging to the system of specific concepts of gnosiological sphere. The potential is indicated of cognitive-semiotic, functional derivative, cognitive-pragmatic and cognitive-derivativological directions in the study of the term as unit of the language and logo, and the need is noted for a deeper study of the term as the main indicator of the scientific sphere of the language. The complex problems are selected of research works on the structure of scientific terminology. The structure of researches of the term in the scientific paradigm, especially its interpretation in the present stage of development of linguistics is described. Having generalized the carried-out analysis, it is possible to draw a conclusion that semiotics and conceptual semantic parameters of the economic term are unique and that the sociocultural and communicative role in processes of knowledge and fixing its results and in the course of practical economic activity is great.
Some somatic phraseological units in the Circassian Nart epos
Analysis is made of somatic phraseological units of the Adyghe language functioning in the Narts heroic epos, which is an original form of expression of artistic consciousness of the Adyghes. This problem remains poorly investigated in the Adyghe modern cultural studies. The goal of this scientific research is to analyze some features of functioning of lexical units of gu «heart» and shkhe «head» in the composition of somatic phraseological units denoting intellectual state of a person found in the Nart epic. To achieve this goal we used the translation analysis of the original text, counting and semantic analysis. The results of this study extend and deepen the understanding of somatic phraseological units of the Adyghe language, their place in the language system and peculiarities of functioning in speech; these results provide a methodological basis for their further study in the Adyghe language. Also they have practical significance, which is expressed in the use of somatic phraseological units in compiling phraseological dictionaries, as well as in their distribution in language and in speech, therefore they can become an important part of the Adyghe phraseology. The use of somatic phraseological units promotes phraseological creativity of all carriers of a national-cultural mentality, of all who speak one or another language.
Sports discourse in coordinates of institutional discursive space
Various approaches to a research of a phenomenon of a sports discourse presented in domestic and foreign linguistic science are analyzed. Studying a discourse in general and a sports discourse, in particular, is in focus of an attention of domestic and foreign linguistic science because the science about language intimately interacts with other, allied areas of knowledge - sociology, medicine, law, psychology. The sports discourse is considered as synthesis of signs of an institutional and professional discourse. Views related to systemacity of communicative process in specific social institute, dictating the need of identification of integral and differential signs of institutional and professional discourses are examined in detail. The syncretic character of this phenomenon and correlations of signs of institutional and professional discourses in coordinates of the studied discursive space are described. Theoretical significance lies in deepening the theory of a discourse and in further development of the theory of language.
Sheozheva B.A., Sokur E.A.
Features of development of corpus of exotic lexicon in the Russian contemporary language
One of the strata of the borrowed lexicon – exoticisms – is considered. Relevance is defined by the fact that due attention is not paid to a research of the factors defining development of this corpus of words in the recent period of language development. An object of the paper is represented by thematic paradigms of exoticisms in Russian and the exoticisms making such paradigms are its subject. The purpose of the paper is to identify the dynamics of development of some exothemes. In this connection the sources of their replenishment and factors defining language contacts as a condition of emergence of new exoticisms are considered. Use of methods of the linguistic analysis adequate to objectives - a method of continuous selection (when collecting material), the appositive analysis, the component analysis and a method of the scientific description - allowed us to bring together the evidential base sufficient for justification of the conclusions. Thus, this research makes a particular contribution to development of the specified problem and proposes to elucidate the factors causing development of corpus of exotic lexicon in the contemporary Russian. It is inferred that along with a tendency to a deexoticization of the mastered lexicon, we observe the significant increase in number of «nonliterary exoticisms» in oral forms of the speech under the influence of mass media and «literary exoticisms” from fiction texts, which need studying and systematization.
Shkhumishkhova A.R., Atakyan G.S.
Technology of manipulative impact in texts of tourist advertising
For the purpose of a linguopragmatic research of the advertising texts urging to accept proposals of tour operators, this paper describes the manipulative technology of impact on consciousness and behavior of target audience which in the majority consists of consumers of elite tourist services. The method of discourse analysis and the intentional research technique meeting the main tasks of the communicative direction of stylistics at the beginning of the 21st century are used. As a result, it is established that the technology of manipulative impact in texts of tourist advertising represents a set of the methods and tools realizing emotional strategy and showing communicative effectiveness which provides successful interaction with the addressee of the advertising proposal. A practical significance of the conducted research lies in studying communicative pragmatical specifics of advertising media texts which are a part of a discourse of tourism and rest. The research makes a contribution to the topical directions of domestic linguistics - linguistic pragmatics, media stylistics, psycholinguistics, and discourse study.
Yagumova N.Sh., Bogus Z.A., Abregov A.N.
English-language phytotoponymy as reflection of national culture of the USA
The paper studies phytonymic toponyms, differing in lexico-semantic and functional stylistic characteristics, being result of centuries-old development. They are of interest both for traditional, and for new toponymic researches, with broad application of methods of interpretation and the comparative analysis in language space of the English-speaking countries. While the toponymic system of England, as we know, differs in inertness, conservatism and time-honored existence, the American toponymic subsystem is characterized by dynamism, figurativeness and novelty. It is established that the USA is characterized by extraordinary rich toponymics in which the phytotoponyms reflecting flora are one of sources of enrichment of language both in linguistic, and in the sociocultural and ethnocultural plan that, in turn, speaks about a scientific and practical significance of the studied subject.
Experiment on a research of perception of concept «kungfu» among Russian native speakers
Kungfu, appearing in the Russian language, acts not only as a new lexical form of expression with original culture, but as a new concept to the language of recipient. This article studies one borrowing from Chinese – “kungfu” from the standpoint of cognitive science and psycholinguistics. According to the statistics from “The Russian National Corpus”, “YandexNews” and our experiments we can conclude that the borrowing “kungfu” is quite common in Russian language after its first emergence in Russia in 1985. Results of free and directed associative experiments create a concept model of kungfu, describe its macrostructure, categorical structure and field organization.
The drama by the King Rama VI Vajiravudh “The Coup” as the Thai authentic version of the European genre of the “discussion play”
This paper will attempt to analyze the dramaturgy oeuvre of the King Rama VI Vajiravudh (1881-1925). The base for this research was founded in his late play “The Coup”, which was written in the year 1923 in a form of the European “discussion play” with the elements of the satire comedy. The monarch is considered to be the founder of the “new Thai drama”. Before the reforms launched by the King, theatre had played solely an entertaining role, presenting almost exclusively themes of love. However, under the influence of western trends, as well as social changes, the monarch created new genres imbued with political context. One of these genres is the so called “discussion play”. For the first time in the Russian and western literary criticism this paper will analyze the Thai play with the social – political context, revealing authentic and national lineaments, which are common for this genre in Siam (the official name of Thailand appeared in 1939). “The Coup” is a model example of intellectual drama, elaborating upon all pressing issues of political life as seen in the society at the beginning of the 20th century. The King’s choice of this type of dramaturgy stems from the need to represent these problems of the time in a figurative form. The practical implementation of this article and its value is in the possibility of its use in the lecture courses on the topic of Thailand. Furthermore, it will be useful for the further researches of the literature processes and analyses of the rise of the new Thai drama.
Hints in the English «Gothic» texts
On the basis of the introduced definition «hint», the author examines the intertextual inclusions in «Gothic» texts presented by historical, religious, mythological, bible and literary types of hints. Methods of historical literary, textual and culturological research of fiction works are used. Main are conclusions that the hint not only serves as sending to the text source and is a sign of a subject situation, but also acts as an element of the existing text included in the created text, i.e. in intertext which, on the one hand, represents the organization of borrows of the text, and on the other, the method of art thinking basing on entry of «Gothic» texts into a single discourse.
Panesh U.M., Berzegova B.V.
Features of formation of the Adyghe literature about war in the second half of the 1940s – the beginning of the 1950s
Typological features of formation and development of the Adyghe national literature of post-war decade are investigated. The authors analyze the originality of problems, evolution of the conflict and features of an art form of prose and poetry of T. Kerashev, A. Evtykh, Yu. Tlyusten, M. Paranuk, S. Yakhutl and K Zhane. The structural and style features of genres of the story, a short novel, lyrics, and a poem determined, on the one hand, by the theory of absence of conflict, and on the other, by attempts to solve hot topics and to strengthen art problematical character, are identified. The lines of the new, intermediate stage of literary process caused by an ambiguous and contradictory cultural and historical era of the late 1940s – the early 1950s are defined and formulated. Use of historic-literary and comparative typological methods allowed reasoning conclusions that, despite the ideological pressure of the state system and influence of the theory of absence of conflict, the Adyghe prose and poetry try to follow a way of truthful display of reality, which exerted impact on further development of the heroic-romantic line. The scientific-theoretical importance of work is that it makes a contribution to the solution of problems of evolution of various genres of literature. Practical value is connected with a possibility of work application in researches of history of literature and in development of higher school textbooks and education manuals.
Panesh S.R., Kapets O.V.
On studying «Petr and Fevroniya’s life»
The authors explore the interrelation of Old Russian literature and folklore using an example of «Petr and Fevroniya’s life» (16th century) by Ermolai-Erazm. The publication reveals and analyzes similarity of the story with works of folklore, in particular, with magic fairy tales. Being the original work, «Life» reminds a little narration of this sort since in it elements of life (miracles during lifetime of heroes and after their death) and magic fairy tale (fight with a snake, Agrikov-sword, a propounding and solving riddles) are combined. In the course of the analysis it is found that the plot-forming material was the legend about the wise girl peasant who cured the prince of a disease and subsequently became his wife. This legend has folklore roots which are displayed both in a work plot and in its separate episodes. In general, the obtained results can be of interest for those who study, analyze and compare works of Old Russian literature, fiction texts, since in many works of that period folklore motives are found.
Pshizova A.K., Achokh B.D.
Transformations of a novelistic form in contemporary national literature
The paper examines genre transformations of a classical form of the novel in modern literature. The atypical novelistic signs allowing confirmation of the main thesis of a research – about formation of a new generic form are analyzed in line with an esthetics of a postmodernism. The purpose of this work is to identify the main directions of the novel modifications. The authors describe such phenomena of a research as inclination to an essayistics and philosophy and to a language and stylistic non-standardization; structural changes (weakening of a plot, clip structure, mixture of art styles within one generic form – the novel, etc.); parody, irony, remake form; and popularity of extremely topical genre forms. As a result it is noted that there is a mixture of the art principles of high and mass culture which caused change of a classical interpretation of the personality. The basic postmodern methodology of the analysis of the put problem makes it possible to confirm the thesis about need to revise habitual Aristotelean division into literary genera in the direction of allocation of one more generic version – the novel.
Art space of Russian-language prose of Moussa Botchaev
An attempt is undertaken to address Russian-language prose of a national author, emerging in the space of two cultural semiospheres – Russian and national, its ethnic mental bases and common cultural traits. We identify and analyze the specific national features of Russian artistic creativity of the author and prove that the choice of language is connected with the peculiarities of the author’s vision, and does not mean that it replaces the ethnic. The results of the study are theoretically important. They can be used to systematize the approach to the elaboration of a holistic image of the character, to contribute to the determination of fundamental laws and to analyze the creativity of other writers. It is concluded that the works of the writer written in the Russian language are part of the national culture.
The evolution of historical revolutionary prose in creativity of Khazret Ashinov in the early 1960s
The paper examines typological features of historic revolutionary prose of the early 1960s using the story of Kh. Ashinov “It thunders also in winter …». The originality of problems, a plot, and arrangement of characters and features of an art form of the work are analyzed. The lines of the conflict are established. They are caused, on the one hand, by the traditions of national literature put in 1930s – 1950s and, on the other, by a cultural and historical situation of the 1960s. The author defines and formulates features of a new stage of formation of historic revolutionary prose: strengthening the art problematical character due to introduction of a lyrical element and formation of a genre of «the small story» of a philosophical moral problematical character. On the basis of comparative typological, conceptual and intertextual methods, conclusions are drawn that, features of the Adyghe national prose of the 1960s – 1980s found reflection in creativity of Kh Ashinov. They expressed such typological feature of national literature as strengthening the subjective narrative line which filled the work of art with new poetic contents. The scientific-theoretical importance of work lies in a research of the major problem of evolution of Kh. Ashinov’s style, as well as in consideration of influence of literary tradition of lyrical prose on the writer’s works. Practical value of this paper is connected with a possibility of its application in researches of history of literature and in the development of higher school textbooks and education manuals.
Specifics of image system of the North Caucasus modern novel myth
This paper explores features of the image system in the North Caucasus modern novel myth. The aim of this paper is to study influence of a mythopoetics on the principles of its image formation. For this the following problems are solved: identification of archetypic sources of images, research of degree of their mythologization and analysis of the concept of the person in the context of novels of N. Dzhusoyta, M. Bulkata, Kh.Beshtokov, Yu.Chuyako, N. Kuyek and D. Koshubaev. To study the myth creativity of the North Caucasus writers the principles of comparative typological, structural semiotic methods and synchronic and diachronic approaches are used. It is established that the mythopoetics significantly influenced the structure and nature of image system of the North Caucasus novel myth and the concept of the person in a mythopoetic context of a narrative. The theoretical importance of this work lies in definition of specifics of image construction of the North Caucasus modern novel myth. The practical importance lies in a possibility of application of results of this work in practice of higher school teaching, in special courses on history of the North Caucasus literature and in studying a genre of the North Caucasus novel myth.
Researches of the local phenomena in the mythology of Anatolia Circassians (based on materials of 2014 and 2015 expeditions)
The system of mythological characters of the Circassian diaspora folk culture remains unstudied till now. The field researches of 2014 and 2015 are the first attempt to draw out the nomenclative constitution of the system of the so called lower mythology characters of Anatolia Circassians and the local peculiarities of the texts’ existence. The author of the paper notes the factors of conformation of these peculiarities – the landscape, social, historical ones, etc. The comparison of the diaspora texts and the materials of the ‘metropolis’ (the Caucasus) reveals the steady subjects and motifs of Circassian mythological system and the pragmatic functions of the texts. It also updates the endemic local phenomena that have emerged over the period of residence outside the historical territory in the new social and cultural conditions.
Unarokova R.B., Pashtova Ì.M., Khakunova E.Kh.
The epic mythological tradition in folklore of the Turkish Circassians
The authors of the paper analyze the forms of epic mythological texts in the folklore of the Circassian diaspora of Turkey using their field recordings. The epic mythological (Nart) tradition (cosmogony, lays and legends of heroes) is represented in the folklore of Anatolia Circassians with comparatively small range of oral texts. However, their special value is destitution of the influence of bookish and media culture. The first aim of the paper is to objectivize the original folklore monuments which were not conserved alive around the historical area. The second one is to outcrop the special features of their being and their social and pragmatic functions conditioned by living outside the historical territory. The epic mythological genres of the Circassian folklore are under view in the said aspects for the first time. The field methods are as follows: the affiliated surveying and informal conversation or interview; audio and video recording and journal notes. The methods of processing the materials include typological comparison, structural, functional and pragmatic analyses.
Shkhabatseva M.A., Khakunova E.Kh.
Adyghe children’s songs of praise
This paper deals with the children’s songs of praise allocated in separate genre group. Researchers of the Adyghe culture studied some questions concerning functions of children’s songs of glorification, the nature of their confinement to ceremonies. The purpose of this paper is to describe art specifics of texts, typological features of image construction. It is emphasized that the songs confined to a holiday of the birth of the child and actually songs of praise are allocated within the studied genre. The narrative character of the children’s songs of praise is marked out. The practical and scientific importance of this research lies in disclosure of a community of motives and cliched formulas of the songs of praise and lullabies. It is established that the leading motive in the songs dedicated to both boys and girls is the wish of the safe future and happy life. It is revealed that like lullabies children’s songs of praise perform forecasting, blessing and safety functions. Comparative, structural and typological methods of research are used to achieve the objectives. Similarity of motives and formulas of the Adyghe songs of praise and lullabies leads to a contamination of genres: songs are sung both in the context of children’s ritual festivals and out of a ceremony.
Lyapun S.V., Sokolova G.V.
Verbalization of emotional tension in Internet comments by Novaya Gazeta readers
To carry out the lingual communicative research of the Internet comments we describe language units, the use of which is caused by the emotional tension arising in the course of discussion of the journalist’s critique. The analysis of Internet comments to Novaya Gazeta materials carried out by means of an intentional method allowed identification of lingual stylistic properties of the texts having the dual nature. As a result of the conducted research the conclusion is drawn that language and style of the Internet comments performing the influencing function testify to the increased emotionality and speech aggression. Stylistically lowered language units reflecting specific features of the speech are used to create negative assessment of the facts or events and / or to demonstrate sharply negative attitude to this or that public personality whose activity is a criticism subject in journalistic material. The practical importance of this research lies in a possibility of using its results to develop communicative stylistics, as well as other topical directions of a discourse paradigm of national and foreign linguistics - Internet stylistics and a virtual genre study.
Editorial case of political newspapers of the Russian emigration of America in the late 19th century: history, national structure and socio-political ambitions
This paper is aimed at studying ethnic and socio-political structure of the editorial case of the first political newspapers of Russian-language emigration of the USA in the late 19th century. Among the main objectives of the publication is identification and the characteristic of the objective factors which influenced editorial policy and destiny of the emigrant press. It is established that most of editors were representatives of the Jewish nationality and at the same time educated native speakers of Russian language and culture. Their political views and social behavior were caused by history of their origin and personal formation in the territory of the Russian Empire differing in discrimination national and religious policy. These emigrants moved the political moods to the earth of America well known for the social, religious and political pluralism. During the short period they could organize the edition of a number of political newspapers. However the analysis of history of these editions showed that owing to material, cultural and educational problems all editions of socialists and sympathizing them failed, and editors redirected the interests on assimilation in the new country and were implemented there in other kinds of activity. Results of this research which is based on original factual material will help us to comprehend more deeply and more in detail the ambiguous processes occurring in the history of development of the Russian-language emigrant press of the USA in the late 19th century.
Concept and components of the communicative status structure as element of shaping an effective model of mass communication
For the first time an attempt is undertaken to allocate a hierarchy unit in mass communication as in composite system, by examining the structural interaction of major factors of stratification of communication participants and fixing the model defined by this way within the new interpretation of a concept of the communicative status introduced by the author. The data obtained within the research by considering the national and foreign authoritative sources and the reviewed scientific publications dealing with the development of ideas on the system nature of mass communication, the study and criticism of the existing models of this process, the examination of actors’ stratification in its framework, as well as with the broad application of theoretical methods of the system and structural analysis, disclose the main laws in formation of hierarchy of mass communication and allow allocation of new epistemological unit - «the communicative status» at the heart of understanding of communication as a composite system. Results of this research are of the theoretical importance, since they actually implement a new concept into the theory of mass communication allowing creation in the long term of the optimized objective model of this process on the basis of the revealed laws of shaping its hierarchical structure. In terms of using in practice, these results are able to afford us to construct a system of practical recommendations about increase in efficiency of communicative practices of mass media.
Study of Arts
Unique features of the development of digital game medium within the framework of game design in the context of game projects developed in Japan
The paper discusses the features of creation of a visual component of various game projects developed by the studios located in Japan which not only were commercially successful but also made a notable contribution to development of a game design as type of design activity. The present research comprises artistic means used in developing playable characters, locations and other aspects of the game medium and the technical issues connected with the usage of particular software aimed at intensifying the gameplay. The scientific importance of the given paper lies in the attempt to work out a system approach to the implementation of various visual concepts by means of computer programs taking into consideration actual tendencies in the game industry. The study of the expressive artistic means used in the process of game development becomes of special practical importance owing to the necessity to transfer the artistic kids of tools to the digital medium which is characterized by numerous unique features that necessitate modifications of the visuals in order to increase the ergonomics of the game medium and its attractiveness to the target audience. On the basis of experience of the Japanese leading game developers, the author of this publication identifies and analyzes special aspects of the usage of computer generated imagery combined with artistic expressive means able to intensify game experience and initiate the flow that encourages the generation of positive emotions by the recipient. One of the main results of the present research is the exposure and systematization of approaches towards the development of the game environment rich in various events and expressive visuals that facilitate the optimization of the development process of new game projects that correspond to the expectations of consumers as fully as possible while having considerable artistic and aesthetic value. From the standpoint of their practical usage, the findings of the given paper that encompasses the fields of aesthetic and information technology can be applied in the development process of Russian commercially viable digital games.
Space as a musical image
This paper describes the means and techniques used to shape space in music from the Medieval Times to the Twentieth Century focusing on ways of special interaction of means of musical expressiveness. The goal of this publication is to show various means and techniques used by various composers to create space in a musical image, and the nature of their evolution in the history of musical art. Researches are conducted with the help of the methods of hermeneutics, comparison and the musicological analysis. Also an analysis is made of theoretical literature sources in the field of philosophy, esthetics, cultural studies and musicology from the perspective of a relation of the concepts «artistic» and «musical image». Numerous musical examples are used to show ways of a reconstruction of various scales of space in music, a correlation of a relief and background, closer and more distant parameters and various plans of space in a musical image. It is proved that space as a musical image is most developed in opuses of the Twentieth Century musicians. This was displayed not only in original musical compositions, but also in aestheticization of acoustic properties of real space, in variety of unique architectural structures of concert halls worldwide, an unusual arrangement of orchestra and orchestral players in scenic space, as well as in understanding of space in the form of a subject problem (ontological or existential) of the person reflection in musical art. Theoretical novelty of this research lies in development of a technique of space analysis in the piece of music, the practical importance lies in identification of the means of musical expressiveness emphasizing spatiality of musical matter.
Conceptual bases of the solo phenomenon of east monody
Solo vocal and instrumental music, as the most common type of creative activity in the musical traditions of the peoples of the East, is one of the important objects of study of Eastern monody capable in many ways to display the specifics of the monodic system. In terms of methodology, study of the specifics of different types of music-making as the original form of musical activity is extremely fruitful, because it is the practical work that largely determines the characteristics of musical thinking, including monody. In this aspect this work explores conceptual bases of solo kind of music-making, which in summary - logical - terms are defined as the relevant principles of the organization and the structural features of soloist musician’s activity. Self-sufficient status of the creative «I» of singer-musician, his centrality in the entire musical process, as well as his guiding function of choice of these or those elements of their deployment, and the formation of a holistic process of intonation are distinguished as the conceptual foundations. Essential aspects of the implementation of creative activity of musician-singer include mental-ideological aspect of his creative «I», which is formed by the relevant national traditions, as well as the personal control of a solo presentation, which leads to the inevitable process of development of the necessary knowledge and skills to complete a solo music career. In this context, consideration of the conceptual foundations of the musician-soloist activity in eastern monody system helps broaden and deepen knowledge about the specifics of the traditional music of the East.
Khvatova S.I., Sergeeva P.A.
Liturgical practices and cult arts: problems and prospects of researches
This paper provides information on the International Scientific Conference «Liturgical Practices and Cult Arts in the Multiethnic Region» held in the Adyghe State University (Russia, Maikop). Diversity and divergence of scientific interests of scientific art critics, historians, teachers, psychologists, religion investigators, philologists and philosophers, participating in this event are disclosed. An attempt of collective interaction on planning strategy and tactics of further scientific research in this direction is undertaken, as well as the special terminology related both to the basic concepts «religion», «belief», «traditional belief», «monotheism», «polytheism», «paganism» and to applied definitions of «religious music», «sacred music», «religious practices», «religious art», etc. is unified. The work of the conference revealed insufficient formation of scientific contacts, weak correlation of the scientists investigating liturgical practices and cult arts in the multicultural world; lack of the general and specific methodological principles of the analysis of cult arts in the context of the liturgical practices; inconsistency of terminology at the scientists of various scientific directions, ethnic and confessional origin; absence of fund of the video and audio material allowing making an idea of a mosaic picture of modern multiconfessional society; unevenness of fixing and scientific judgment of the current state of processes of religious and national revival of modern Post-Soviet Russia and strengthening requirement of practical departure of church services and interest in cult arts. It is established that such situation can initiate long-term scientific researches within the research project.