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#1 / 2017
Abregov A.N., Sheozheva B.A.
Record of morphonological changes in word structure of the Abkhaz-Adyghe languages in etymological researches
The paper explores morphonological changes connected with the inner structure of the word, taking place in the structure of the Abkhaz-Adyghe languages. In the linguistics, an opinion has been adopted that changes do not take place in the agglutinative languages due to multimorphemic structure of word forms, the unambiguity of morphemes and the tendency to preserve strict boundaries between morphemes. The analysis of lexical units in the Abkhaz-Adyghe languages with the help of comparative, structural-semantic and historical-comparative methods makes it possible to reveal all the changes in the morphonological structure of the words of the Abkhaz-Adyghe languages, which is essentially important both for the General and Caucasian linguistics. It has been proved that agglutinative languages cannot avoid the universal law of changes in the morphonological structure of the words. By taking into consideration these changes we may carry out fullfledged etymological investigations. It has been proved clearly by the analysis of lexical material of the Abkhaz-Adyghe languages, typical representatives of the agglutinative languages.
Adzinova A.A., Kopot L.V.
Interrelation of verbal and iconic components of the creolised text (from material of the journal for motorists «Driving»)
An analysis is made of the precedent and creolised texts which are on border of linguistics and other semiotic systems. A research objective is to analyze the creolised texts presented in the automobile journal «Driving», which are structurally containing verbal and iconic components. Iconic means as a part of creolised formations are still the least studied in linguistics, and their interpretation presents considerable difficulties for the addressee. As a result of the analysis of titles of creolised texts the precedent units representing a semiotic code in the form of indirect references, hints, and allusions accompanied by the image, as well as the models of creolised texts are revealed. The research carried out within cognitive science expands scientific idea of precedent phenomena. Thus, functioning of precedent units as a part of the titles transformed by the author according to contents of the creolised text allows already known idioms to look new and fresh. Behind their external, «iconic» facade we can see the author’s relation to these or those phenomena, taking place not only in the automobile world, but also in other spheres of human activity.
Language game as instrument of updating linguistic creativity
The paper examines the characteristic features of the language game as phenomenon of language and speech. A language game is considered as the major means influencing mass consciousness through mass media. The purpose of this paper is to analize and describe the language game in headings of modern media texts as manifestations of a lingual creativity of the language personality – the subject of mass media. To solve the set objectives the author uses a descriptive method with its main components: observation, interpretation and generalization, and a method of the contextual and semantic-stylistic analysis. Material of a research was represented by the text fragments from modern mass media containing examples of a language game in headings. Novelty of this research and the importance for the theory of language lie in an integrated approach to studying the phenomenon of a language game in heading through the prism of lingual creative thinking.
Donskova L.A., Bagirokov Kh.Z.
Psycholinguistic bases of communicative tolerance of linguistic person
The paper analyzes the communicative tolerance of a linguistic person in foreign language communication and gives the characteristic of this trait which defines the life position and human activity, and which affects the relationships with other people and professional growth. The data obtained in the framework of the presented research are based on the study of numerous domestic and foreign sources and reviewed periodicals devoted to the problems of tolerant and interpersonal communication. These data contribute to definition of basic patterns that lead to verbal behavior of the person, defense of his own position as a point of view, tolerant attitude to the statements of others, interaction of different opinions and the ability to negotiate, tolerant behavior in stressful situations. The results of this study including the research of speech activity have theoretical significance. This activity from the point of view of generation and perception of speech utterances and identification of approaches to formation of behavior and emotional components of communicative tolerance of a linguistic personality shows that it is able to compensate the possible differences between the interlocutors in cognitive or behavioral planes, impeding them from outgrowing into interpersonal confrontation and intolerance. The analysis is provided of experimental values of researches of the development of communicative tolerance on the basis of psychological and linguistic features of students-managers who show the ability to establish the contact and to engage in interpersonal communications, to avoid the conflict situations. The obtained results can be successfully used both directly to form communicative tolerance in the process of interpersonal foreign language communication and as a theoretical basis for further study of psycholinguistic principles of communicative tolerance of the person.
Strategy in speech communication: theoretical aspect
Such concept as strategy, in particular a concept of communicative strategy is investigated. Its characteristic features are considered, and classifications of the most often found communicative strategies are given. It is noted that strategy is a certain scenario of behavior of one of communicants in a situation of speech communication, and conditions of a situation of communication can be various, introducing amendments in strategy. Therefore there is no their uniform classification. The data, obtained within this scientific research based on studying both the domestic and foreign sources devoted to problems of speech strategies and communication, promote identification of the fundamental traits causing classification division of communicative strategies, and various aspects of their belonging to this or that subgroup. It is emphasized that in lack of the uniform unified classification of communicative strategies there are strategy problems in speech communication that can be applied to define further ways and prospects of studying.
Conceptual foundations of the ergonymic field formation
The aim of this work is to study the ergonymical vocabulary as a means of representation of a particular conceptual content and to identify the relationship of the nomination in the field of ergonymy with the perception of the world and the means of its conceptualization and representation in language. The author proceeds from the understanding of ergonymical field as systemic-structural, hierarchic unit which can be investigated from the standpoint of structuring levels of the language picture of the world consisting of many interrelated components. The author, using some of the techniques of descriptive method and conceptual analysis and elements of statistical analysis, through the identification of the source of primary appellative or a proper name, is conducting a detailed interpretation of ergonymic material. The result of this approach is the postponement of the attention from linguistic tools to the study of the influence of onomastic realities from the point of view of their participation in the meaning formation, language reflection of the worldview and producing the kinds of knowledge about the world, i.e. the formation of onomastic knowledge. Referring to the study of ergonymical field in the cognitive aspect, it is noted that its formation, more specifically the formation of ergonymic picture of the world is greatly influenced by extralinguistic factors. As a result, some parameters for the selection of conceptual characteristics turn to be more significant than others.
Features of realization of colloquial speech in a literary dialogue (as shown by Anna Gavalda’s novels “Je l’aimais” and “Ensemble, c’est tout”)
The paper defines and analyzes the parameters of realization of natural colloquial speech, represented in literary dialogues of Anna Gavalda’s novels “Je l’aimais” and “Ensemble, c’est tout”. Results, obtained in terms of the actual research, based on methods of characters’ speech study towards dialogue theory, discourse theory, stylistics, text linguistics, conduce to the definition of natural speech peculiarities in a literary dialogue, a role of a dialogue in a literary text, and means of characters and personalities’ representation through their speech characteristics. Results of this research possess the theoretical value, systematizing the complex of approaches to colloquial speech parameters study and can be used both in French language and literature teaching and in theory of speech acts and dialogue discourse study.
Comparative analysis of the fragments of language consciousness of native English and Yakut languages speakers (as shown by concept «Culture»)
The general and specific features in the perception of the concept «Culture» by native Yakut and English language speakers are identified and analyzed. According to the analysis of definitions of the word «culture» from Yakut, Russian and English language dictionaries there were revealed 15 stimulus words, reflecting the concept «Culture». Data obtained as a result of the associative experiment among the Yakut and English language speakers serves as a means of access to the images of language consciousness. «Semantic gestalt» method proposed by Y.N. Karaulov is used to detect the nuclear and peripheral signs of our concept. The use of this method is effective for the study of national and cultural features of language consciousness of different ethnic groups. As a result we presented the structure of the chosen concept in the language consciousness of Yakut and English language speakers: core, proximal, distal, extreme peripheries. The core of the concept «Culture» in language consciousness of Yakut language speakers is «Folklore», the proximal periphery is «Literature», «Human Values», «Relationship», the far periphery is «Faith», «Institutionalization», «Physical actions», the extreme periphery is «Sport», «Education», and «Periodization of culture.» The core of the concept «Culture» in the English language consciousness is «Education». The proximal periphery is «Science and new technologies», «Man». The far periphery is «Family», «Scientific Activity», «Cultural institutions and activities.» The extreme periphery is «Religion», «Attitude to the culture», «Periodization of culture», «Art», «Hard copy», and «Quality».
Loova A.D., Khachetsukova Z.K.
Steady core of a stereotypic image: national specifics, original traditions as the stabilizing mutual understanding factor in cross-cultural communication
This work deals with the special status of ethnocultural stereotypes in coordinates of phraseological system of languages of different systems. The purpose of this work is to analyze essence of ethnic stereotypes, their places and a role in culture of communication. On the basis of stereotypes the ethnic image is formed — a form of the description of ethnos in which the most significant and typical properties are distinguished and which are based on sensory perception of the own or foreign ethnos. The ethnic image serves as a standard according to which the person motivates his own behavior and awaits it from other people. By means of the complex technique including the conceptual and comparative analyses it was established that stereotypes have to be studied as an important part of ethnos, as an essential element of belonging of the person to this culture, as a symbol of consciousness, national and cultural identification of the personality. It is defined that ethnocultural stereotypes are, in a definite sense, representatives of culture in its broadest understanding and a reliable support of the personality in dialogue of cultures. Scientific novelty and the practical importance of this work lie in establishment of parameters by means of which values and mental characteristics reflected in language of this society at this cultural and historical stage are studied. Formation of ethnocultural identity is connected not so much with development of language competence as with ability to be guided in a cultural context. Knowledge and possession of system of the general and national stereotypes largely facilitates process of learning foreign languages, as well as promotes elimination of communicative barriers in cross-cultural communication.
Nechay Yu.P., Shishkina A.G.
German and Russian fairy tales: the national peculiarities
The paper deals with the peculiarities of German and Russian fairy tales, their heterogeneity in content and in form. The linguistic analysis of their formation is carried out. The specific national colouring, similarities and discrepancies of types and kinds of verbal descriptions, as well as universal human characteristics are discussed. The theoretical significance of the work is in the author’s attempt to study how through the example of fairy tailes modern speakers of different ethnicities perceive the fragments of the linguistic view of the world, formed in the previous periods. The practical significance of the work is stipulated by the fact that it allows employing the comparative analysis of fairy tales characters within another language material. The paper concludes that the similarities and differences of fairy-tale motifs can be explained by the social environment of the tale creation and historical conditions of certain periods, under which the Germans and Russians lived.
Plaksina V.A., Ostrovskaya T.A.
Actualization of a cluster concept of «ëèöåìåðèå / hypocrisy» in a political discourse
The ethic and moral cluster concept of «ëèöåìåðèå / hypocrisy» is examined through a prism of its objectivization in a political discourse. The ways of manifestation of hypocrisy in political communication revealed by way of the complex analysis of the considerable number of texts from national cases of the Russian and English languages are categorized. Recurrent lexical units, verbalizing a concept of «ëèöåìåðèå / hypocrisy» in a political discourse are allocated; a certain law in their distribution in relation to the subject of hypocrisy is described. Results of this research make it possible to systematize approaches to studies and categorization of moral and ethical concepts and can find application in practice of a research of linguocultural concepts. On the basis of the analysis of texts from the Russian National Corpus and British National Corpus, the authors have revealed the law of use of the lexical units nominating the concept «hypocrisy» in their distribution in relation to the subject of hypocrisy.
Popova L.G., Vorobyeva O.Yu.
Conceptualization of the earth as natural phenomenon in the English and Russian texts of the heroic epos
Process of conceptualization is considered as process of perception and the organization of the world around, as reflection of this process in concepts and as formation of concepts. The research of conceptualization of the earth as natural phenomenon within this work represents clarification of verbalization of a concept «earth» in language. Two related languages are compared: English and Russian. «Beowulf» and the Russian ballads served as material for research texts of English and the Russian heroic epos. To achieve a goal, the English lexeme the earth and the Russian lexeme çåìëÿ which act as the basic lexemes representing the called concept in these languages were chosen. The appeal to etymology of these lexemes found out their primary meanings. The comparative analysis of their meanings in the English and Russian texts of the heroic epos allowed establishing both their similarity and distinctions. Similar is expression of conceptualization of the earth as natural phenomenon as a basis. Similar representation of the earth proceeds from etymology of the lexemes chosen for the analysis. However in the English texts conceptualization of the earth as a keeper of the hidden treasures takes place. In the Russian texts expression of conceptualization of the earth as soil is noted. Expression of conceptualization of the earth as feminine of all live is specific in the Russian bylinas.
Popova L.G., Zezyulya I.N.
Rest representation as break in work in the English and Russian paroemias
Rest is considered in philosophy as universal value. Individual values among which the ratio of rest and work, health, interests and psychological state is noted belong to the main values of rest also along with natural and social values of rest. In this paper the comparative research of paroemias with the component «having rummaged in work as universal value» in the English and Russian languages is offered. The purpose of work is detection of similarities and distinctions in functioning of the paroemias representing rest as having rummaged in work, in the studied languages. The comparative analysis promoting studying of the characteristics concluded in paroemias and also a method of continuous selection of phraseological dictionaries of the compared languages and the websites served as the main methods of a research. Studying this group of the paroemiac units makes it possible to understand and realize linguoculturological features of the considered languages. It is established that rest as universal value is displayed in the English and Russian paroemias as a long break in work, and rest without effort results in poverty and misfortune. Among the English and Russian paroemias, representation of rest, short on time, namely holiday is also revealed. Results of the research about features of functioning of the paroemias verbalizing rest as break in work expand the known ideas of paroemias and stimulate further researches in this sphere.
Popova L.G., Ismailova S.N.
Display of external beauty in the English and Azerbaijani phraseological pictures of the world
The phraseological picture of the world of two unrelated languages - English and Azerbaijani - is investigated. The purpose is to detect specifics of display of external beauty in these phraseological pictures of the world. For the first time in comparative linguistics, representation of external beauty in a phraseological picture of the world of unrelated languages is studied using a material of these languages. Its practical value lies in a possibility of drawing up the bilingual phraseological dictionaries constructed by the principle from a concept to the word. The comparative method, a method of the semantic analysis and a method of the etymological analysis were used. In phraseological pictures of the world of the compared languages external beauty is presented as the externally beautiful person in beautiful clothes. However, in the Azerbaijani phraseological picture of the world this is also a wise person. In the English phraseological picture of the world external beauty corresponds to image of the healthy, hardworking person, and in the Azerbaijani phraseological picture of the world – to image of the wealthy and beautiful man. External beauty in the English phraseological picture of the world is presented as the image of beautiful speeches (an image of honey as a value indicator), beautiful clothes (an image of beautiful plumage) and happy life (an image of clear day). The theoretical importance of work lies in further development of problems of studying a phraseological picture of the world in the related and unrelated languages, and in consideration of opportunities of change of semantics of language units representing a different type of concepts. Results of this research can be useful at work on comparative phraseology of the English, Azerbaijani and Russian languages, special courses on a lingual culturology, cognitive linguistics in higher education institution by drawing up phraseological dictionaries of the English and Azerbaijani languages.
Popova L.G., Kulakova Yu.N.
Lexicographic means of representation of a core of concept «thrift» in the German and English languages
The comparative analysis is made of concept «thrift» in the English and German languages to search for the general and distinctive in verbalization of this concept. During the research core lexemes of die Sparsamkeit, die Őkonomie in German and economy, thrift in English were allocated. The conceptual analysis of the concept shows that specifics of a corel of a concept in German are made by values: «a condition of economy and to have economical character; limited moderation, economical line, housekeeping, the economical address to something», and in English thrift is «saving or careful use of something, financial economy, care of resources to avoid excess expenses, thrift, change of the offer or a claim for the offer of the best quality for smaller money, a way or a means of economical economy, economy, reduction of something, careful use, economical or limited use of something, saving, the income, wisdom and care on hand money». Results of a research can be used in implementation of cross-cultural communication. The scientific importance of work lies in expansion of a circle of approaches when studying verbalization of concepts in related languages.
On linguistic creativity (as shown by a study of unformal toponyms)
The paper deals with unofficial names of geographic objects in French. The paper deals with the occurrence of these units, cognitive mechanisms of their construction, as well as their functions in the discourse. The material of the present study is based on articles of the magazines Le Monde, Le Figaro, Le Point, and La Vie, and on magazine columns, addressed primarily to specialists of economics and business. The work is performed in the field of cognitive linguistics. The methodology is based on cognitive semantics and cognitive analysis of discourse. Analysis of unofficial names of geographic objects shows that using cognitive profiling mechanism, specific feature of the subject / object of onomastic nomination falls into the focus of attention and serves as a catalyst for the secondary category. The practical value of the study is determined by the use of the obtained results of research in theoretical courses on lexicology and stylistics.
Tenses and Moods in the Hattian and Abhazian-Adyghe Languages
For the first time an attempt is made to single out markers of tense and mood in the Hattian verbs by comparing them with corresponding verbal markers in the Abkhaz-Adyghe languages. Up to date researchers of the Hattian language failed to reveal these grammatical affixes. When selecting markers of tense and mood we took into consideration legitimate sound correspondences of vowels and consonants in the Hattian and Abkhaz-Adyghe languages. Hattian markers of tense and mood are given in Latin, their Abkhaz-Adyghe match – in the. Cyrillic alphabet. The materials of the study were bilingual texts. The method of investigation is based on the comparative analysis of two or more languages from a historical point of view. The analysis of the Hattian tense and mood markers in the texts belonging chronologically to different time made it possible to reveal rather a wide system of aspect-tense forms of the past tense and mood in the Hattian language. It is noteworthy that Hattian and Abkhaz-Adyghe affixes rendering aspect-tense and mood meanings are identical which proves undoubtedly their relationship. The results of the investigation may contribute to deciphering ancient texts and their reconstruction.
Language personality of the sportscaster in discourse space of mass media
An analysis is made of the language personality of the sportscaster in discourse space of mass media from positions of lingual cognitive approach. Studying social institutes – formal / informal, fundamental / auxiliary – is intended for satisfaction of certain requirements of society. They are characterized by a complex of functions which can be realized when performing a certain set of norms and rules of conduct of the personality and requirements. Feature determination for representations of various communicative types of the language personality of the sportscaster is stated in detail. The description is made of the language personality who appears as the discourse personality whose specifics are determined by personal features of a producer of a sports discourse, as well as by discourse factors causing also speech-genre features of this type of a discourse. The theoretical importance lies in deepening of the theory of a discourse, and in further development of the theory of language. The practical value of the stated material lies in a possibility of its application in higher school lecture courses on the theory of language, linguistics of the text, and theory of a discourse.
Feature reflection of national mentality in proverbs of writer-bilingual R. Trakho
The paper examines the Adyghe proverbs used by the writer-bilingual in literary texts in the Russian, German, and English languages, reflecting national lines of ethnos at perception of a picture of the world. The goal is to identify the peculiarities of national mentality in proverbs used by Ramasan Trakho in literary texts in aspect of cross-cultural communication, and definition of their lexico-semantic specifics in various languages. Useful information on a paroemiology which is of interest to lexicologists, lingual culturologists, sociolinguists, culturologists and other experts is entered into scientific use. Results of a research have the theoretical importance showing specific lingual culturological filling of proverbs in these languages. The presented material can be included in lecture courses on a lingual culturology, sociolinguistics, the theory of language, in degree and term papers on a paroemiology. Methods of comparison, the description, methods of classification and systematization of the paroemiac constructions are used.
Khachmafova Z.R., Chuprakova E.V.
Representations of an emotional condition of the female character in verbal and nonverbal aspects of communication
Verbal and nonverbal means of representation of an emotional condition of the female character in an art discourse are considered. Significant lingual poetic means of expression of an emotional condition of the female character are revealed and described. In the analysis of practical material, we used the method of linguistic observation and description of the specific language data to obtain the generalized data realized by an interpretative technique and partial use of a method of the component and contextual analysis. Text fragments of modern literary prose served as material of this research. Existence of emotionally charged thematic and semantic fields is established, the language preferences in emotive aspect of the statement represented in the female character and author’s speech are revealed. The practical value of the stated material lies in a possibility of its application in higher school lecture courses on the theory of language, and an emotiology.
On the problem of innovation in Boris Utizhev’s works
For the first time the problem of Boris Utizhev’s innovation is considered based on the material of his poetry and prose. Particular attention is given to the evolution of the genre system of national literature, which is important for all the literatures of the North-Caucasian region. Using comparative-historical method, the creativity of a talented writer is analyzed in the context of the whole Russian literary process. The scientific significance of the research is based on the desire of the author to associate B.Utizhev’s creative individuality and national distinctness with changes in the theory of post-Soviet period. The paper can be the basis for the study of the role of a bright creative individuality in the development of the literatures of the peoples of the North Caucasus, and the results can be used in the practice of secondary and higher educational institutions, which study Adyghe literature, as well as in the implementation of special courses and seminars.
Dzhambekova T.B., Inarkaeva S.I.
The idea of the person/personality in structure of current Chechen female prose
For the first time an attempt is undertaken to study a genre of the Chechen female prose, features of formation in its art structure of the idea of the person and the personality, to present genre history in general, and to define a genre-forming role of the concept of the person \personality in the art text. The technique of a research is built using the comparative and typological analysis of versatile art material of modern Chechen female prose. A practical part of material is based on a research of the story «Outlines» of the modern Chechen writer Lula Kuni. In art structure of the story, the war and its destructive influence on human destinies are investigated. The idea of the person in prose of Lula Kuni is built on understanding of human life as supreme value, on recognition of the human person by the highest substance. The genre of female prose in modern Chechen literature is the unique phenomenon, being in process of formation, but already intensely declaring in the most different aspects, especially from a position of outlook, uniqueness of an art world vision. Results make a certain contribution to development of the Russian and national literary criticism in a research of a genre of female prose. They can also have active practical application in studying the North Caucasus literatures at philological faculties (departments of the native language and literature), especially regarding studying a genre paradigm.
Kapets O.V., Kapets V.P.
Problem of formation of the personality in L.N. Tolstoy and I.A. Ilyin’s heritage
The paper explores the development of the personality in L.N. Tolstoy and I.A. Ilyin’s compositions. Their works serve as an object of this research. The authors try to clear how L.N. Tolstoy and I.A. Ilyin understand a problem of formation of the personality. The attention is focused on attitude of thinkers to questions of knacks of the child, a family, and education. Such analysis of creativity of Tolstoy and Ilyin makes a certain contribution to comparative and typological literary criticism. It is inferred that both thinkers addressed questions of congenital potential of children, a family and education. However Tolstoy pointed to harm of educational process for the child, but Ilyin – to its advantage.
Opposition ‘the village — the city’ in creative consciousness of M. Isakovsky
The paper examines features of art realization of an antithesis ‘the village — the city’ in creative consciousness of M. Isakovsky. The publication sets the goal of analyzing motives and the reasons of formation and implementation of this opposition in the memorial autobiographical book through system of methods of its disclosure. The author shows topicality for M. Isakovsky in his childhood, the adolescence, and youth to ‘enter’ into other, wide world, world of culture, education, and ‘civilization’, which is the reason of involuntary ‘inattention’ to a family and the village. In the book ‘On the Yelnya Earth’, unilateral ideas of the native village only as about a backwardness symbol are manifested. There is no antagonism ‘village – city’ in M. Isakovsky’s outlook, moreover there is no idealization of the city, but in the relation to the pre-revolutionary village he shows underestimation of some sides of spiritual life of the Russian peasantry, a little negative shade in its assessment, unconditional acceptance of advantages of a city ‘post-industrial’ civilization. The paper gives the version of an assessment of the matter belonging to A.T. Tvardovsky, making the conclusion about specifics of harmonious talent of M. Isakovsky who was organically combining «primogeniture» of his natural, rural origin with school of intelligence, comprehension of traditions of the Russian classics.
Khadzhieva L.L., Tovsultanova D.S.
Art structure and author’s discourse in M.V. Isakovsky’s book ‘On the Yelnya Earth’
This paper deals with the features of autobiographical prose of M.V. Isakovsky. The paper is aimed at analyzing the art structure and an originality of the author’s discourse in his book «On the Yelnya Earth», methods of disclosure of his system of ideas about the literary autobiography, art time and space of this sort of works. Isakovsky discloses the concept of «the small homeland» in two main ways: on the one hand – rational, and on the other – art, emotional, figurative. Features of creative individuality of the writer are estimated through his understanding of the nature, the purposes, tasks and kinds of an autobiographical genre. Specifics of a combination in the book of documentary and art principles, wealth and the importance of realistic details are analyzed. Features of an author’s position of the memoirist are estimated, the ratio of features of a children’s and «adult» discourse, and extra-subject elements of the text are characterized. The conclusion is drawn about relevance of autobiographical prose for system of outlook of M.V. Isakovsky, his ideas of the world and the person.
Study of Arts
Theater and audience: long-distance relations (as shown by theatrical life in Perm in the 19th, 20th and early 21st centuries)
This paper is devoted to peculiarities of the regional public in its many-year communicating with «its» theatre in the case of Perm of the 19th, 20th and the beginning of the 21st centuries. This study is based on comparative analysis of available data on the theatrical life of the city of Perm in the 19th, 20th and at the beginning of the 21st centuries. In particular, the paper analyzes the preconditions and the initial stage of the theatrical process in the form of performances of local amateurs, serf troupes, theatre companies and theatrical life in the Soviet era and in the post-Soviet era. The theoretical significance of this paper is that the author in order to characterize the area, in which the theatrical art was developed, used not only the concept of «mining civilization», but introduced the concept of «multicore space», which caused the relationship between the centre and the periphery within the Ural region. The practical significance of this paper lies in the fact that the author revealed that the theatrical life in Perm was born in the depths of «mining civilization», which defined the uniqueness of not only the formation but also the subsequent development of theatre in Perm. It was the only experience in the Russian province to successfully conduct business on similar principles, under the leadership of elective «Theater Directorate». Activity of the theater which regarded art and educational, but not commercial tasks as of paramount importance made the «prolonged» impact on the general atmosphere of the city, on its culture, and on formation of meanings. In that period there were qualitative changes not only in the self-perception of people, but in the perception of the city from the outside, and Perm considerably «progressed» in finding glory of the theatrical city.
Cantoral activities of the Archimandrite Matthew (Mormyl)
An attempt is undertaken to generalize the material about rehearsal work of the Cantor with chorus obtained from pupils and followers of the Archimandrite Matthew in St. Sergius Posad and in Perm. (In 2018 it will be 80 years since the birth of Archimandrite Matthew (Mormyl) (1938-2009), the great Cantor, composer and teacher, whose name is inseparable from the liturgical singing in the Holy Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra.
This unique spiritual personality created school of church singing, transposed the great number of chants to singsongs, systematized the musical library of Lavra’s chorus and brought the male choral performance to perfection. Since the principles and methods of his long-term work with chorus have not become object of studying yet, this work is aimed at a research of practical data on his rehearsal work with chorus in St. Sergius Posad and in Perm. In the last decade of the 20th century, in connection with the 1000 anniversary of the Rus’ Christianization, the great contribution to a revival of church music and continuation of national traditions was brought by many composers, cantors, and chorus masters who were engaged in creation and performance of spiritual compositions and musical adaptations of ancient church singsongs. This is of special importance for spiritual and cultural heritage of our country. Laborious rehearsal work of the Archimandrite Matthew, demanding the highest level of quality, brought surprising results. The hearts of listeners were always won by soft, but mighty sounding of men’s chorus under his management. Created by him new and recognizable style which received the name of «Matthew’s» was demanded not only on a church choir. His name forever will remain conformable with the Russian church singing of chorus of the Holy Trinity St. Sergius Lavra.
Dramaturgic and composition features of a miniature for a violin solo in the last third of the 20th century
For the first time in musicology the author analyzes tendencies in development of a miniature for a violin solo of the last third of the 20th century using an example of Kikta’s «Cadence», Litinsky’s «Monologue», Mostras’ «Prelude», Prelude in memory of Dmitri Shostakovich and «Paganini’s Dedication» by Schnittke. The paper focuses on revealing dramaturgic and composition patterns of a violin miniature on the basis of the compositions stated above. The following features prevail in them: variant development in synthesis with polyphonic; intonation, rhythmic and harmonious transformations of a thematic invention and texture; methods of free improvisation, the principle of a core and expansion characteristic of a Baroque Era. Parallels with Korelli, Paganini, Rachmaninov, and Shostakovich’s large-scale compositions are drawn that expand the content of a violin miniature, fill it with a set of associations. This is reflected in use of patterns of large genres of the sonata, symphony, a variation, the symphonic rhapsody, as well as genres of a prelude and improvisation that strengthen processes of genre and style synthesis in a separate miniature, and shape its semantic layers. Plays contain reflections about cardinal issues of life, semantic values of art, and about the scale of the personality of the artist-creator, bearing memory of past eras. Each play bears in itself innovations of modern violin performance, composer’s searches of the last third of the 20th century, recreating the generalized image-portrait of the violinist – the musician for all times.
On the preservation and revival of spiritual musical culture in Rostov-on-Don during the second half of the 20th century
The purpose of this paper is to identify ways to preserve the Orthodox singing tradition in terms of anti-religious persecutions of the second half of the twentieth century. It analyzes two development branches: a secular and spiritual. In the first part of the paper, we examine the preservation of the choral tradition in the liturgical environment, because the leaders of Church choirs and the singers were secular people, and it was not necessarily, that their main profession was connected with the music. In the 1980s, interest in sacred music was increased in society: creative teams included in the repertoire the works of Russian classics composers. The problems faced by the Orthodox singing culture at the end of the second Millennium, received understanding of science. The second part of the paper is dedicated to the processes occurring in a secular society in the late twentieth century. Scientific practical importance and the actuality of this paper are determined by the introduction into scientific use of new materials of domestic and foreign periodicals, and documents of the State Rostov Region Archive. The author comes to the conclusion that the revival of church and singing art at the end of the 20th century became natural development of culture as manifestation of natural intellectual and religious requirement of society which continued to exist since pre-revolutionary times in the conditions of aggressive atheistic policy of the Soviet government.
Russian folk embroidery: ornament, character, motive
An analysis is made of change of use of various patterns and images in embroidery in connection with the change of vital foundations and the general outlook. The basis of the technique of this research is that a subject surface, rhythmically repeating motive, creates feeling of decorative effect and transformation of a form, and depending on stylistics of an ornament the person perceives the subject. Emphases are placed on the main etymological features in creating ornaments. Methodological approaches to perception of embroidery by various people of Russia are revealed. For example the embroidery of the northern regions of Russia (The Arkhangelsk, Vologda regions) and southwest (border regions of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus) show various perception. The northern embroidery is geometrized, while in southern stylistics, vegetable ornaments prevail. But all examples testify to importance of an image in a decor. We give the most striking examples of «live» images of the national embroidery which remained in the samples of the beginning and the middle of the 19th century but it is not enough objects which reached our time. The ornament is the peculiar language used in decorating applied objects of the different people, and motive is fundamental for creation of an ornament of any type – geometrical, vegetable, zoomorphic.