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#2 / 2017
Alentyeva M.A., Chitao L.R.
Cross-cultural communication as new level of language competence
The paper analyzes positions of the English as one of languages of the international communication during an era of a global bilingualism. Special attention is paid to interpenetration of cultural traditions and changes at the language level. At least, three new aspects in learning a foreign language are revealed as a result: communicative, culturological, and sociolinguistical. The culturological aspect has, as has been revealed, the increased value as involves studying culture of the country and the people through language. The task is set to use English in the appendix to foreign-language (from the point of view of this language) cultures. One of the major elements at the translation of the foreign-language text is formation of English-language designations for elements of the foreign-language cultures referred to as xenonyms. Xenonymic variability leads to the fact that in many cases two or more options of designation of the same elements of external cultures coexist. The translated text is defined as the data carrier which is reflecting not only subjective visions of the world by the author, but is bearing the impress perception of reality by the translator. It is established that the translated text is the text adapted to different existential environment and ambience. Recommendations are made about the translation of foreign-language texts. They can be used in selection of texts for the cognitive and developing purpose in that volume and ratio which will be the most expedient for achievement of language competence.
Some features of language space of Adyghe lullabies
Imperative and narrative lullabies of the Adyghes are examined to identify and describe the features of their language. Of scientific importance are the revealed language formulas, comparisons, stylistic figures, addresses with wishful thinking, and repetitions of language structure of various levels which are abundant in language of narrative and imperative lullabies. Cheering-soothing language units and verbs of the indicative and imperative moods perform soporific function. It is concluded that striking syntactic feature of the language of imperative lullabies is amplification, while that of narrative lullabies is epic vocative. The genre-stylistic, textual and narrative methods are used as the cornerstone of research. Theoretical and practical value lies in the possibility of using the results of research in courses on linguistics and folklore.
Reduplication in the Adyghe language and its specifics
The comparative analysis is made of the reduplicated words recorded in lexicographic dictionaries of the Adyghe language. The repetitions formed according to different word-formation models are extensively developed in the Adyghe language, but some questions do not receive the sufficient judgment. Thus, linguistic dictionaries do not specify all types of reduplication. The special research of reduplication as one of productive ways of form- and word formations in the Adyghe language is very relevant both at theoretical and practical levels since results of studying repetitions show that they promote forming of a clear thought in the course of communication, as well as give uniqueness and originality to language. They reflect such major properties of language system as a tendency to redundancy of information, and existence of the duplicating subsystems, acting as a tool for ensuring reliability of the message and completeness of expression of a thought. A number of such specific features of language, comprising synonymic and antonymic repetitions, are revealed.
System-forming signs of an Internet discourse and value picture of the world
This paper deals with social practices promoting expansion of discourse space of the Internet. Social and communication functions of the Internet are allocated. Definition is given and Internet communication development tendencies are noted, its specificity is described. Constitutive signs of the Internet discourse are considered and its system-forming signs are described, namely: participants of the Internet discourse, idea of a social mission, the purposes and the communicative strategy of the Internet discourse, genres, a chronotope and discursive formulas of the Internet discourse. The conclusion is drawn about relationship of the discursive practices of the Internet and value picture of the world.
Reduplication models of stem-composition in fiction texts of Kh.Ashinov
The paper discusses the reduplication as one of the most widespread ways in morphological word formation of the Adyghe language basing on fiction texts of Kh. Ashinov. Functioning of reduplication in the fiction text in the Adyghe linguistics is described for the first time. The analysis of the compound words formed by means of reduplication shows that the writer widely uses these units in the art creativity. A number of reduplications are created by the author that demonstrates that the writer possesses wealth of the Adyghe language and its means, and uses creative approach to their formation. As the analysis of the text of Kh.Ashinov’s work shows, the considered type of a morphological structure, namely the reduplication, is frequent (one per each one and a half pages of the text), and both entering couple of an element are capable to be represented by different parts of speech. Results of work can be used in course of Adyghe modern language at studying word formation, and at drawing up dictionaries of various types.
Dzhandar B.M., Loova A.D.
On a national originality of gender stereotype functioning in native speakers’ language consciousness (from material of the German and Adyghe cultures)
The paper explores gender stereotypes as one of the most important aspects of social and cultural life of society. The opposition «men’s» - «women’s» is fundamental to human culture, and there are numerous proofs to it originating in ancient philosophical ideas of the world. The purpose of this publication is studying an ethnic component of gender stereotypes in language consciousness of carriers of the German and Adyghe cultures. The comparative - typological method is used to identify and to analyze national cultural specifics of gender stereotypes in the German and Adyghe language consciousness. An attempt is undertaken for the first time to reveal gender stereotypes in language consciousness of carriers of the cultures under study. The general components and ethnic component of gender stereotypes are defined, as well as national and cultural specifics of language consciousness of Germans and Adyghes are detected that promotes accumulation of data on ethnocultural specifics of language consciousness of people of the world. Gender stereotypes in language consciousness of representatives of various ethnoses demonstrate the original cultural specifics which are displayed in cross-cultural communication. The successful solution of problems of optimization of communication requires studying national and cultural specifics of language consciousness, ethnic and gender stereotypes.
Kambachokov A.M., Khashkhozheva Z.T.
The problems of semantic and grammatical peculiarities of participle in the Kabardino-Circassian language
The work highlights the semantic and morphological features of participle that distinguish it from other verbal formations in the Kabardino-Circassian language. It regards the types of syntactic relations and connections that occur in participial phrases both as central and dependent components. The aim of the paper is to study some aspects of participle grammatical nature in the Kabardino-Circassian language. During the study we used descriptive, comparative, structural semantic methods and a method of contextual analysis. The conclusions of the work come down to the fact that the participle in the Kabardian-Circassian language, unlike the Indo-European languages, has quite important morphological categories (person, number, tense, versions, potentialities, causative, compatibility, transitivity / intransitivity), but at the same time limitations of these categories do not give grounds for attributing it to fully independent parts of speech. It is only a verbal formation, denoting an action additional to the main action expressed by a finite verb.
Kopot L.V., Shevatlokhova E.D., Arkhipova I.V.
On formation of the standard of speech in mass media
An analysis is made of communicative failures in mass media connected with violation of standards of the literary language from positions of ethical aspect. We used the observation method enabling finding the speech facts which appeared in mass media; the method of a system research including the synchronous analysis of collected material; and the comparison method making it possible to establish similarity and distinction of objects and phenomena of reality. Examples of mistakes which sounded in the speech of the famous Russian actors, politicians, public figures, and journalists, reviewed and qualified as communicative failures in the field of orthoepy, lexicon, morphology, and syntax, were explored as material of research. The reasons of destabilization of language norm were established and described. It is inferred that the anti-standard of speech is formed not by «bottoms», but the «tops» designed to create and propagandize the elite language personality, and that strengthening censorship and acceptance of preventive measures concerning promoting the Russian literary language are required. Novelty of factual material of this research, certainly, will promote increase in speech responsibility of speakers, as well as will allow carrying out systematic work in the field of language ecology. The practical value of this research lies in a possibility of use of the stated material in higher school lecture courses on the standard of speech, sociolinguistics, speech writing, and advertsing.