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#4 / 2022
Typology of female characters in Kalmyk heroic tales
This paper discusses the typology of female images in Kalmyk heroic tales. The main attention in the work is paid to the identification of female images in the oral fairy tale prose of the Kalmyks, their description, division into types, influence on the development of the plot of the work. The author divides conditionally the entire set of female types in the Kalmyk heroic tales into characters belonging to the world of the epic hero and characters of another world (both the “upper” - the daughter of deities and luminaries, and the “lower” - the shulmus witches). Those are such types as “bride”, “heroic girl”, “assistant of the protagonist”, and “shulmuska-witch”. Particular attention is paid to the image of a heroic girl, which has become widespread in the epics of many peoples, and the image of an old woman-witch, which has anthropomorphic features.
Folk epos in the context of reality
The article examines the basic principles of the artistic reflection of reality in the songs and tales of the Adyghe (Circassian) historical heroic and archaic Nart epic. We consider the problem in theoretical and methodological terms, taking into account the peculiarities of the genre evolution from the stage of its formation to the actual completion of its productive period and func-tions in the context of modern culture. The affected issue was raised at different times by many researchers and solved by them in relation to certain circumstances. The question of the final reso-lution of all issues related to this problem is practically not raised, since any significant changes in public life reveal new facets associated with the relationship between reality and its reflection in the verbal art, in particular – folklore, and in this case – in the genre of folk epic. Special attention is paid to such a generic feature of the heroic epic as its inertia regarding diffusion with non-ethnic cultural phenomena and the resulting ability of this genre to serve as an attributive factor in determining the genesis of the phenomena of traditional folk art.
Some aspects of ethnolinguistic analysis of vocabulary, related to the wedding ceremony rituals of the Adyghes
The article deals with the part of the vocabulary of the Adyghe languages, extracted from various sources, primarily works of oral folk art. Exceptionally rare or infrequently used words in the speech of modern Kabardians, Circassians and Adyghes, related to the wedding ceremony rituals of the Adyghes were restored in this way. In order to track various aspects of the history of the development of the ethnos, its culture, way of life, views and philosophy through its deeds, naming and expressing its actions through words, preserved in various layers of the vocabulary, the article provides an ethnolinguistic, semantic, derivational and etymological analysis of the collected terms, related, first of all, to the marriage rites that accompanied the Adyghes from ancient times to the present day. The work has an interdisciplinary character, written at the junc-tion of philology and ethnology. It is intended to fill certain gaps in the study of the passive layer of the vocabulary of the Adyghe languages. Its results can be used in scientific research devoted to the analysis of the history of the development of the ethnos and the peculiarities of the functioning of the vocabulary of its language.
doi: 10.53598/2410-3489-2022-4-307- 130-139
Paranuk K.N., Unarokova R.B.
Mythopoetic image of nature in the stories of the Adyghe writer Nalbiy Kuek "Excellent Horse Bechkan", "Black Mountain", "For-est of Loneliness"
The paper deals with the features of the image of nature in the stories of N. Kuek "Excel-lent Horse Bechkan", "Black Mountain", and "Forest of Loneliness". The author analyzes the in-fluence of mythopoetics on the features of mythopoetic world modeling. The publication investi-gates the leading mythologems of the earth, fire, forest, and trees in the formation of the image of nature, the degree of mythologization of the image of nature in stories of different years. The au-thor concludes about the mythopoetic nature of the image of nature and its role in the reconstruction of the national picture of the world, about the peculiarities of the creative manner of the au-thor, close to mythoepic sources and at the same time bringing to neomythologism.
Unarokova R.B., Paranuk K.N.
Narrative songs (otezh oredhair) in Adyghe folklore culture
The paper deals with folklore texts, traditionally classified as "lyzekyo lykhuzh ored" (a memorial song about a hero), later called "ballad-type song". In order to determine the artistic and style features, we analyzed a series of narrative songs functioning in the West Adyghe local tradition. The separation of songs of a narrative nature, nominated by us as "otezh oredhair" into an independent genre subgroup is legitimate. The results obtained can be used in solving the prob-lems of systematization and classification of works of folk lyrics, as well as in a more detailed study of specific genre formations.
Nechay Yu.P., Zubova T. G.
Stylistic and translation analysis of the language of E.M. Remarque's novel "Liebe Deinen Nächsten"
The article provides a stylistic analysis of the language of the novel by E.M. Remarque "Liebe Deinen Nächsten" and its implementation in Russian translations. It is noted that the trans-lation of E. Nikaev is characterized by a tendency to split complex sentences, which allows you to quickly rethink and simplify the presentation of many events and phenomena. It has been established that in many cases the translator resorts to techniques of omission, holistic reinterpretation, splitting or combining sentences, as well as lexical addition. All the presented techniques are repeatedly used and contribute to the most complete display of the stylistics of the original text. The authors conclude that not all the presented variants can be considered successful, since in some of them there is a decrease or a significant loss of expressiveness and expressiveness that take place in the original text.
THE THEORY OF LITERATURE
Beauty and everyday life in the last novel by V. Makanin
In V. Makanin's last novel "Two Sisters and Kandinsky", written in the style of new real-ism, the author raises a philosophical problem of the possibility of coexistence of beauty and the modern world. Reducing the plot of Chekhov's play and transferring it to the 1990s, the author shows that only love and beauty are the true values of being. However, the development of events in the novel shows that Makanin’s Olga and Inna, like the Chekhov characters of the same name, when faced with the “half-hearted people of perestroika”, a careerist political figure and an egoist musician, experience disappointment and an understanding that the present time has not yet come and its arrival is not close.
M.Yu. Lermontov’s poem “Leaf”: romantic conflict in robes of civilization conflict
The article analyzes the conflict in the poem by M. Yu. Lermontov "Leaf" (1841). The novelty of this article is that researchers interpreted the conflict in the poet's text as civilizational or as individual, while this article combines these two methodologies. The characters of the poem by M.Yu. Lermontov simultaneously turn out to be emblems of different civilizations (the Leaflet is the emblem of European civilization; the Chinar is the emblem of North Caucasus civilization) and carriers of a romantic conflict between "I" and "Non-I". The basic meaning in the text is given to the problem of the impossibility of verbal contact in the romantic paradigm. This shows the poet's transition from "canonical romanticism", standing on plot stereotypes, to "reflective romant-cism," exploring itself.
Traditions and innovation in the work of Mukhamed Dobagov
The article deals with the work of Dobagov Mukhamed Kalabekovich (1941–2009), who made a significant contribution to the development of Circassian literature. Mostly newspaper and magazine articles have been published about him, with a complete lack of academic research. The purpose of the article is to fill this gap in national literary criticism. The introductory part says that his merits are most obvious in dramaturgy, although he published stories, essays, novels; pop-ular songs on the words of the poet. The study is mainly based on the materials of dramas, come-dies created on modern topics. The article is based on the method of revealing the ways of enrich-ing traditions by the playwright with new compositional, plot, figurative-expressive and stage means. Within the framework of the stated problem, the writer's prose (some stories and the story "Autumn of Psinadakh" about the children of Leningrad, rescued in the Circassian village during the Great Patriotic War), as well as his translation activities, are also considered. At the end of the article, the results of the observation of the multifaceted work of the writer are summed up and some recommendations are offered on the most complete introduction of the works of M. Dobagov into the practice of schools and universities where Adyghe literature is taught. The place of M. Dobagov in the Adyghe literary process is determined.
Reflection of 1917 revolutionary events in the works of S.A. Yesenin (literary and historical aspect)
This article discusses the formation of views of the famous Russian Soviet poet of the 20th century S.A. Yesenin on the events of the revolution of 1917 and the Civil War, their reflection in his poetic work. The article examines literary-critical, historical and autobiographical material concerning the creation of Yesenin's works written during this period, as well as the perception of the poet by his contemporaries. The reasons for such an understanding and depiction of reality in his poetic world are established.
Gereikhanova K.F., Sherchalova E.V.
Intertemporal dialogue in the late works of V. Pelevin
The article studies the intertext in the domestic postmodernist work in order to clarify the nature of the phenomenon and determine its role in the late works by V. Pelevin. The publication investigates the ways of including reminiscences of both domestic and foreign texts in the au-thor's text, and reveals the features of postmodernist game of the author with literary tradition and with reader's perception. analyze the late works of V. Pelevin. The authors have revealed that the inclusion of intertext is for the author a tool that allows not only to build intertemporal and intercultural dialogue, but also to include the reader in the semiotic game, and give an additional characteristic to the character.
Philosophical mode of literary and artistic work as a problem of theoretical poetics
The paper discusses the functional role of the philosophical mode in a literary work. The author proves that this mode determines the “depth of the text” and the specificity of ontological poetics as a meaningful form of existence of artistic meaning. The author differentiates the concepts of “philosophical mode” and “artistic mode”, simustaneously arguing the position, accord-ing to which the presence of a philosophical mode is one of the conditions for the compliance of a literary work with the criteria of artistry. In the paradigm of the philosophy of literature, the work analyzes the eidos of modus as “appearance”, “material reality” of artistic knowledge, which provides the specifics of non-theoretical philosophizing in artistic images.
Panesh U.M., Ashinova Yu.A.
The evolution of enlightenment and the peculiarities of the formation of its revolutionary model in national literature
The paper analyzes the theoretical issues of the formation of the educational movement in different countries, and examines its evolution in the Russian cultural and historical reality of different eras. The publication reveals the formation of a revolutionary model of Enlightenment in Russian multinational literature of the post-revolutionary decades of the twentieth century. The paper determines the features of the new version of enlightenment that manifested themselves in the Adyg literatures and reflected the typological features of the general artistic and aesthetic process.
Panesh U.M., Sokolova G.V.
The role of literature in shaping national identity
The paper examines the development of the literary process in its connection with the for-mation of various types of national identity. The work deals with the features of ethnic, regional, and all-Russian identity. The authors determine and characterize different levels of artistic and aesthetic unities - zonal, regional, and all-Russian, and reveal the principles of their formation and peculiarities of interaction with national identity. The system-dynamic approach, used in the study, makes it possible to formulate theoretically substantiated conclusions about the artistic consciousness of the literary era of the twentieth century and its influence on the creative process.
The problem of literary artistic creativity in Alan Cherchesov's novel “Villa Belle Letre”
The article deals with the complex problem of literary artistic creativity in the novel of the modern Russian-speaking Ossetian prose writer Alan Cherchesov. For the first time in the history of modern Russian literature, the author determines so widely and multivariably the aspects of literary creativity that are evaluated by character writers, and clarifies the essence and significance of the phenomenon of literature itself, literary talent, which are partly solved in the context of postmodernism.
Khatkova I.N., Beshukova F.B.
Ways to model the artistic world of dystopia in V. Sorokin's novel "Manaraga"
The article is devoted to a comprehensive study of the features characteristic of the genre of dystopia in the novel by V. Sorokin "Manaraga". Particular attention is paid to the considera-tion of the peculiarities of the structure of the text, the construction of the character system and the individual style of the writer, as well as ways to implement the main idea of the novel "Manaraga". The study is based on textual analysis and comparative-typological methodology. The scientific and practical significance of the article lies in the literary identification of the gen-re specifics of V. Sorokin's novel. The main results and conclusions of this work are related to the definition and description of individual features of both the writer's novel and his work.
Representation of the national world and interpretation of the historical event in the story of Nalbiy Kuyek "Khanakh"
The article is devoted to the study of the representation of the national world and interpretation of history in Adyghe historical prose of the 20th century. Based on the material of the story "Khanakh" by the national writer Nalbiy Kuyek, the author identifies and analyzes a representative model of the Circassian world associated with the national character and stereotypical ideas, as well as examines the features of the interpretation of the October Revolution as a historical event.
"War is not always a scourge, sometimes salvation": F.M. Dostoevsky's Philosophy of War
The article is devoted to the study of F.M. Dostoevsky's views on war as a theological, ethical, socio-cultural and historiosophical phenomenon. Sporadically presented throughout Dostoevsky's post-penal servitude works, military themes receive a special sound in notebooks and articles of the Writer's Diary on the eve and during the Russian-Turkish War of 1877-1878. The conceptual analysis of the author's epistolary and journalistic heritage makes it possible to deter-mine the genesis, characteristic features and place of Dostoevsky's pro-war views in the general system of the writer's worldview.